NOAA's Response and Restoration Blog

An inside look at the science of cleaning up and fixing the mess of marine pollution


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What’s It Like Saving Endangered Baby Sea Turtles in Costa Rica?

This is a post by the Office of Response and Restoration’s Valerie Chu.

Three newly hatched Olive Ridley sea turtles crawl across sand.

Newly hatched Olive Ridley sea turtles make their way toward the ocean. (Used with permission of Julie Watanuki)

I was standing on a sandy Costa Rican beach in the dark of night when I received a hard lesson in the challenges of saving an endangered species. It was my first night volunteering during a seven-day stint on a sea turtle conservation project with the Asociación de Voluntarios para el Servicio en Áreas Protegidas (ASVO) in Montezuma, Costa Rica.

I was charged with protecting sea turtle nests in the ASVO hatchery from poachers and hungry wildlife. On the night of my very first shift, I discovered something terrible had happened. A net covering one of the sea turtle nests had been taken off, and when I looked inside, I found the remains of eight dead baby turtles with just their heads bitten off. When I looked in the back of the hatchery, I noticed that some eggs also had been dug up and eaten.

It was heartbreaking, but furthered my resolve to protect these vulnerable turtles.

Later that night, I discovered who the culprits were—two raccoons. Throughout my shift, the two raccoons would sneak back and I would scare them away each time. Fortunately, the raccoons did not come back in the following days. I was grateful I could play a small part in giving young sea turtles a head start in a long and dangerous journey.

Thinking (and Acting) Globally

Rows of nets cover sandy sea turtle nests, surrounded by fencing.

Volunteers with ASVO place sea turtle eggs collected from Costa Rican beaches into a hatchery with nets covering the nests to protect them from poachers, predators, and other threats. The eggs hatch less than two months later. (Used with permission of Valerie Chu)

Ever since I graduated from the University of Washington in 2012, I’ve wanted to make a positive impact on the dwindling populations of endangered species around the world. I started by volunteering to help orphaned and injured wildlife at the PAWS Wildlife Center near Seattle, Washington (where I recently volunteered during a vegetable oil spill).

As I’ve worked with these animals, my desire of making a global impact on wildlife conservation has increased more and more. In December 2015, I finally got my chance to do it when I traveled to Costa Rica to volunteer with ASVO.

ASVO’s primary goal is to promote active conservation in protected areas, beaches, and rural communities of Costa Rica. They have a volunteer program in around 20 different areas of the country, staffed by some 2,300 volunteers, comprising both local and international volunteers from around the world.

Turtle Time

I was working with Olive Ridley sea turtles, a vulnerable species likely to become endangered in the foreseeable future. Their main threats to survival are direct harvest of adults and eggs, incidental capture in commercial fisheries, loss of nesting habitat, and predators.

During nesting season in Costa Rica, people with ASVO patrol the beaches for female turtles laying their eggs and then gather the eggs and place them at a hatchery. This way, the eggs are protected from poachers, predators, and other threats, both human and environmental. The eggs incubate in the hatchery for between 52 and 58 days before hatching.

Because I had arrived at the end of sea turtle nesting season, I mostly handled the hatchlings and released them into the ocean. When the newly hatched turtles had completely emerged from their nests, I would—while wearing a glove—pick up each one from its nest and head to the ocean. I would then set the turtles down on the sand and watch them walk into the ocean. Some turtles would lose their way because they would walk in the wrong direction or get swept aside by a big wave, so it was my job to make sure they found their way to the ocean without mishap.

Most of my turtle volunteer shifts were at night, and because sea turtles are very sensitive to white light, we could only use a red light while handling them. During night shifts, we were always paired with a second person, allowing us to have one person handle the hatched turtles while the other could stand guard at the hatchery (a very important job, as I observed my first night).

After releasing the turtles, I had to record the number of turtles released, the time of the release, and other notes. Each of the nests held roughly 80-100 eggs, and about 50-70 eggs would hatch, which was an incredible sight.

Don’t Stop (Thinking About What You Can Do)

This trip was an absolutely amazing experience for me. By working with these turtles, I began to fulfill my dream of making a global impact on endangered species populations. On top of that, I was able to connect with other people who care about these issues and form a deep bond over this shared experience.

In the future, I hope to continue volunteering for the conservation of imperiled species like the tiny sea turtles I encountered in Costa Rica. In 2017, I plan to travel to Thailand to work with the endangered elephant population.

But there are lots of ways to protect endangered species at home too. How do you plan to help?

Three people help wash an oiled goose in big soapy wash tubs.

Valerie Chu is an Environmental Scientist who has been providing support for the Office of Response and Restoration’s Emergency Response Division software projects since 2012, when she obtained her undergraduate degree in Environmental Science and Resource Management and then started working with NOAA and Genwest. During her spare time, she volunteers with animal welfare-related causes such as PAWS and Zazu’s House Parrot Sanctuary.


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Explore Oil Spill Data for Gulf of Mexico Marine Life With NOAA GIS Tools

In the wake of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the sheer amount of data scientists were gathering from the Gulf of Mexico was nearly overwhelming. Everything from water quality samples to the locations of oiled sea turtles to photos of dolphins swimming through oil—the list goes on for more than 13 million scientific records.

So, how would anyone even start to dig through all this scientific information? Fortunately, you don’t have to be a NOAA scientist to access, download, or even map it. We have been building tools to allow anyone to access this wealth of information on the Gulf of Mexico environment following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

We’re taking a look at two of our geographic information systems tools and how they help scientists, emergency responders, and the public navigate the oceans of environmental data collected since the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

When it comes to mapping and understanding huge amounts of these data, we turn to our GIS-based tool, the Environmental Response Management Application, known as ERMA®. This online mapping tool is like a Swiss army knife for organizing data and information for planning and environmental emergencies, such as oil spills and hurricanes.

ERMA not only allows pollution responders to see real-time information, including weather information and ship locations, but also enables users to display years of data, revealing to us broader trends.

View of Environmental Response Management Application showing map of Gulf of Mexico with varying probabilities of oil presence and sea turtle oiling during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill with data source information.

In the “Layer” tab on the right side of the screen, you can choose which groups of data, or “layers,” to display in ERMA. Right click on a data layer, such as “Turtle Captures Probability of Oiling (NOAA) (PDARP),” and select “View metadata” to view more information about the data being shown. (NOAA)

For instance, say you want to know the likelihood of sea turtles being exposed to heavy oil during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. ERMA enables you to see where sea turtles were spotted during aerial surveys or captured by researchers across the Gulf of Mexico between May and September 2010. At the same time, you can view data showing the probability that certain areas of the ocean surface were oiled (and for how long), all displayed on a single, interactive map.

View of Environmental Management Application map of Gulf of Mexico showing varying probabilities of oil presence and sea turtle exposure to oil during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill with map legend.

Clicking on the “Legend” tab on the right side of the screen shows you basic information about the data displayed in ERMA. Here, the red area represents portions of the Gulf of Mexico which had the highest likelihood of exposing marine life to oil. Triangles show sea turtle sightings and squares show sea turtle captures between May and September 2010. The color of the symbol indicates the likelihood of that sea turtle receiving heavy exposure to oil. (NOAA)

Perhaps you want to focus on where Atlantic bluefin tuna were traveling around the Gulf and where that overlaps with the oil spill’s footprint. Or compare coastal habitat restoration projects with the degree of oil different sections of shoreline experienced. ERMA gives you that access.

You can use ERMA Deepwater Gulf Response to find these data in a number of ways (including search) and choose which GIS “layers” of data to turn on and off in the map. To see the most recently added data, click on the “Recent Data” tab in the upper left of the map interface, or find data by browsing through the “Layers” tab on the right. Or look for data in special “bookmark views” on the lower right of the “Layers” tab to find data for a specific topic of interest.

Now, what if you not only want to see a map of the data, what if you also want to explore any trends in the data at a deeper level? Or download photos, videos, or scientific analyses of the data?

That’s where our data management tool DIVER comes in. This tool serves as a central repository for environmental impact data from the oil spill and was designed to help researchers share and find scientific information ranging from photos and field notes to sample data and analyses.

As Ocean Conservancy’s Elizabeth Fetherston put it:

Until recently, there was no real way to combine all of these disparate pixels of information into a coherent picture of, for instance, a day in the life of a sea turtle. DIVER, NOAA’s new website for Deepwater Horizon assessment data, gives us the tools to do just that.

Data information and integration systems like DIVER put all of that information in one place at one time, allowing you to look for causes and effects that you might not have ever known were there and then use that information to better manage species recovery. These data give us a new kind of power for protecting marine species.

One of the most important features of DIVER, called DIVER Explorer, is the powerful search function that allows you to narrow down the millions of data pieces to the precise set you’re seeking. You do it one step, or “filter,” at a time.

DIVER software dialog box showing how to build a query by workplan topic area for marine mammals studied during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

A view of the step-by-step process of building a “query,” or specialized search, in our DIVER tool for Deepwater Horizon oil spill environmental impact data. (NOAA)

For example, when you go to DIVER Explorer, click on “Guided Query” at the top and then “Start to Explore Data,” choose “By Workplan Topic Area,” hit “Next,” and finally select “Marine Mammals” before clicking “Run Query” to access information about scientific samples taken from marine mammals and turtles. You can view it on a map, in a table, or download the data to analyze yourself.

An even easier way to explore these data in DIVER, however, is by visiting https://www.doi.gov/deepwaterhorizon/adminrecord and scrolling down to and clicking on #5 Preassessment/Assessment (§§ 990.40 – 990.45; 990.51). This will reveal a list of various types of environmental impacts—to birds, sea floor habitat, marine mammals, etc.—which the federal government studied as part of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill’s Natural Resource Damage Assessment.

Say you’re interested in marine mammals, so you click on 5.6 Marine Mammal Injury and then 5.6.3 Data sets. You can then download and open the document “NOAA Marine Mammal data related to the Deepwater Horizon incident, available through systems such as DIVER and ERMA, or as direct downloads. (September 23, 2015).”

Under the section “Data Links,” you can choose from a variety of stored searches (or “queries”) in DIVER that will show you where and when, for example, bottlenose dolphins with satellite tags traveled after the spill (tip: zoom in to view this data on the map)—along with photographs to go with it (tip: click on the “Photos” tab under the map to browse).

Map view of DIVER software map showing where tagged dolphins swam in the Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

A map view of DIVER shows where tagged dolphins traveled along the Gulf Coast, showing two populations that stayed in their home bases of Barataria Bay and Mississippi Sound. (NOAA)

This can tell us key information, such as the fact that certain populations of dolphins stay in the same areas along the coast, meaning they don’t travel far from home. We can also look at data about whether those dolphin homes were exposed to a lot of oil, which would suggest that the dolphins that lived there likely were exposed to oil again and again.

Both of these tools allow us to work with incredible amounts of data and see their stories brought to life through the power of geographic information systems. So, go ahead and start exploring!


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What Happens When Oil Spills Meet Massive Islands of Seaweed?

Floating bits of brown seaweed at ocean surface

Floating rafts of sargassum, a large brown seaweed, can stretch for miles across the ocean. (Credit: Sean Nash/Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic license)

The young loggerhead sea turtle, its ridged shell only a few inches across, is perched calmly among the floating islands of large brown seaweed, known as sargassum. Casually, it nibbles on the leaf-like blades of the seaweed, startling a nearby crab. Open ocean stretches for miles around these large free-floating seaweed mats where myriad creatures make their home.

Suddenly, a shadow passes overhead. A hungry seabird?

Taking no chances, the small sea turtle dips beneath the ocean surface. It dives through the yellow-brown sargassum with its tangle of branches and bladders filled with air, keeping everything afloat.

Home Sweet Sargassum

This little turtle isn’t alone in seeking safety and food in these buoyant mazes of seaweed. Perhaps nowhere is this more obvious than a dynamic stretch of the Atlantic Ocean off the East Coast of North America named for this seaweed: the Sargasso Sea. Sargassum is also an important part of the Gulf of Mexico, which contains the second most productive sargassum ecosystem in the world.

Some shrimp, crabs, and fish are specially suited to life in sargassum. Certain species of eel, fish, and shark spawn there. Each year, humpback whales, tuna, and seabirds migrate across these fruitful waters, taking advantage of the gathering of life that occurs where ocean currents converge.

Cutaway graphic of ocean with healthy sargassum seaweed habitat supporting marine life.

Illustration of sargassum and associated marine life, including fish, sea turtles, birds, and marine mammals. Sargassum is a brown algae that forms a unique and highly productive floating ecosystem on the surface of the open ocean. (NOAA) Click to enlarge.

The Wide and Oily Sargasso Sea

However, an abundance of marine life isn’t the only other thing that can accumulate with these large patches of sargassum. Spilled oil, carried by currents, can also end up swirling among the seaweed.

If an oil spill made its way somewhere like the Sargasso Sea, a young sea turtle would encounter a much different scene. As the ocean currents brought the spill into contact with sargassum, oil would coat those same snarled branches and bladders of the seaweed. The turtles and other marine life living within and near the oiled sargassum would come into contact with the oil too, as they dove, swam, and rested among the floating mats.

That oil can be inhaled as vapors, be swallowed or consumed with food, and foul feathers, skin, scales, shell, and fur, which in turn smothers, suffocates, or strips the animal of its ability to stay insulated. The effects can be toxic and deadly.

Cutaway graphic of ocean with potential impacts of oil on sargassum seaweed habitat and marine life.

Illustration of the potential impacts of an oil spill on sargassum and associated marine life in the water column. (NOAA) Click to enlarge.

While sea turtles, for example, as cold-blooded reptiles, may enjoy the relatively warmer waters of sargassum islands, a hot sun beating down on an oiled ocean surface can raise water temperatures to extreme levels. What starts as soothing can soon become stressful.

Depending on how much oil arrived, the sargassum would grow less, or not at all, or even die. These floating seaweed oases begin shrinking. Where will young sea turtles take cover as they cross the unforgiving open ocean?

As life in the sargassum starts to perish, it may drop to the ocean bottom, potentially bringing oil and the toxic effects with it. Microbes in the water may munch on the oil and decompose the dead marine life, but this can lead to ocean oxygen dropping to critical levels and causing further harm in the area.

From Pollution to Protection

Young sea turtles swims through floating seaweed mats.

The floating habitat that sargassum creates provides food, refuge, and breeding grounds for an array of marine species, including sea turtles. (NOAA)

NOAA and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service have designated sargassum as a critical habitat for threatened loggerhead sea turtles.

Sargassum has also been designated as Essential Fish Habitat by Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council and National Marine Fisheries Service since it also provides nursery habitat for many important fishery species (e.g., dolphinfish, triggerfishes, tripletail, billfishes, tunas, and amberjacks) and for ecologically important forage fish species (e.g., butterfishes and flyingfishes).

Sargassum and its inhabitants are particularly vulnerable to threats such as oil spills and marine debris due to the fact that ocean currents naturally tend to concentrate all of these things together in the same places. In turn, this concentrating effect can lead to marine life being exposed to oil and other pollutants for more extended periods of time and perhaps greater impacts.

However, protecting sargassum habitat isn’t impossible and it isn’t out of reach for most people. Some of the same things you might do to lower your impact on the planet—using less plastic, reducing your demand for oil, properly disposing of trash, discussing these issues with elected officials—can lead to fewer oil spills and less trash turning these magnificent islands of sargassum into floating islands of pollution.

And maybe protect a baby sea turtle or two along the way.