NOAA's Response and Restoration Blog

An inside look at the science of cleaning up and fixing the mess of marine pollution


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How Do We Measure What We Lose When an Oil Spill Harms Nature?

This week, NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration is looking at the range of values and benefits that coastal areas offer people—including what we stand to lose when oil spills and chemical pollution harm nature and how we work to restore our lost uses of nature afterward. Read all the stories.

This is a post by economist Adam Domanski of NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration.

A beach closed sign on a fence in front of an ocean beach at Coal Point.

When an oil spill closes a beach, economists will count how many trips to the coast were affected by that spill and use information on where those trips were originating to measure the lost value per lost trip. This informs the amount of restoration that needs to make up for those losses. (Used with permission of Chris Leggett)

After oil spills into the ocean, NOAA studies the impacts to animals and plants, but we also make sure to measure the direct impacts to people’s use of nature. This is all part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment process, which makes up for those impacts.

Humans can value environmental quality just for its existence (think of remote mountains and pristine beaches). In the Natural Resource Damage Assessment process, this “non-use value” is most often compensated for by replacing the natural resources or services that were lost.

Oil and Fun Don’t Mix

However, people can also value the environment because they use it for recreational or cultural purposes. For example, people may be affected if they can’t go fishing, boating, or walking along the beach because of an oil spill.

When oil or another contaminant comes near shore, sometimes people will cancel their planned trip, sometimes they’ll change where they’re going, and other times they’ll still take a trip but will enjoy it less. Trustees of the affected resources, like NOAA, apply different tools to measure these recreational use losses (we’ll talk about cultural losses in an upcoming blog post).

However, people may make one of these changes even if there isn’t any oil present on the beach. Sometimes beaches or fishing areas may be closed because cleanup crews or environmental assessment teams are present. Other times, people may hear about an oil spill in the news and may change their trip based on their reasonable expectation that the oil spill will affect their trip in some way.

Infographic showing three scenarios for how people react to an oil spill: some people stay home from the beach, some people go to a beach farther from the oil spill, and some people go to the same beach but have a less enjoyable experience.

Thanks to the Oil Pollution Act, any one of these changes is an impact than we can quantify in the Natural Resource Damage Assessment process.

Counting How Much Less Fun

Under the Oil Pollution Act, people generally can file legal claims for two types of economic losses related to recreational use due to a spill. Lost revenue to local businesses, such as stores, restaurants, and hotels, is a private loss and is reserved for those businesses to claim. On the other hand, the lost value to the would-be hikers, boaters, anglers, and swimmers is considered a public loss and is the responsibility of trustees, that is, local, state, and federal agencies and tribes acting as stewards of the affected public natural resources.

People walking on a developed portion of white sand beach at the ocean.

Pollution makes for a bad day at the beach, which is why NOAA also measures the impact of oil spills and chemical releases on people’s use of natural resources. (NOAA)

To measure these public damages, trustee economists will count how many trips to the coast were affected by that particular oil spill and use information on where those trips were originating to measure the lost value per lost trip. Together, these two pieces make up the trustee claim for lost recreational use after an oil spill.

To measure lost trips, trustees will often use on-site, telephone, or mail surveys in combination with on-site or aerial counts of people on the coast. Sometimes, we can take advantage of other data sources that already tell us how many people visit the coast, such as existing beach attendance data, parking meter counts, or recreational fishing surveys.

For example, after the 2007 Cosco Busan oil spill in San Francisco Bay, trustees performed on-site counts of people at some beaches, used a telephone survey to estimate the levels of use at others, and relied on the California Recreational Fisheries Survey to estimate trips taken by anglers. This information was combined with weather data in a statistical model to predict the number of people that would have taken trips if the oil spill hadn’t occurred. The assessment estimated that there had been over 1 million lost trips.

The lost value per lost trip is measured using economic models that combine information on where people live and which recreational sites they can choose from. Just like shopping at the grocery store (where you choose from lots of different products at different prices), recreators choose between lots of different access points, each of which has a different “price” (in terms of gas and travel time).

People standing around a pier fishing.

When pollution affects people’s ability to use and enjoy natural resources, such as fishing, we use money from the entity responsible for the pollution to fund projects that will benefit the very same users who were affected. (NOAA)

Using many observations of how many people choose which sites at which prices, economists can measure the recreational demand for each site. When a site is affected by an oil spill, this model can be used to determine the lost value to recreators. For the Cosco Busan oil spill, this approach estimated that the average lost value per lost trip was $18.25 (as measured in 2007 dollars).

The goal of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment process is to compensate the public for the harm caused by a spill. After we calculate the lost value, the trustees aren’t done yet. Using money from the entity responsible for the oil spill, we spend restoration dollars on projects that will benefit the very same users who were affected. A few examples of projects we have built include fishing piers, boat ramps, parks, and artificial reefs.

Survey Says

So, how important are lost recreational use claims to the Natural Resource Damage Assessment process? Here are a few approximate numbers from past oil spill cases:

As you can see, surveying how people use the environment is a critical part of this process. And although taking surveys can be annoying, they often times generate really useful data that economists get super excited about—and from which you can directly benefit. So, the next time you get asked if you want to take a survey, take the opportunity to make an economist happy and say yes.

Learn more about the economics of Natural Resource Damage Assessment and the value of a good day at the beach (video).

adam-domanski_150Adam Domanski is an economist who specializes in non-market valuation with the Assessment and Restoration Division of NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration. He received his PhD in Economics from North Carolina State University and has worked on numerous oil spill and hazardous waste site cases. In his spare time he enjoys traveling and spending time outside.


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From Kayaking to Carbon Storage, What We Stand to Gain (and Lose) from Our Coasts

This week, NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration is looking at the range of values and benefits that coastal areas offer people—including what we stand to lose when oil spills and chemical pollution harm nature and how we work to restore our lost uses of nature afterward. Read all the stories.

This is a guest post by Stefanie Simpson of Restore America’s Estuaries.

People sitting in canoes and standing on a shoreline.

When coastal habitats are damaged or destroyed, we lose all of the benefits they provide, such as carbon storage and places to canoe. (NOAA)

Estuaries, bays, inlets, sounds—these unique places where rivers meet the sea can go by many different names depending on which region of the United States you’re in. Whether you’re kayaking through marsh in the Carolinas, hiking through mangrove forest in the Everglades, or fishing in San Francisco Bay, you are experiencing the bounty estuaries provide.

Natural habitats like estuaries offer people an incredible array of benefits, which we value in assorted ways—ecologically, economically, culturally, recreationally, and aesthetically.

Estuaries, where saltwater and freshwater merge, are some of the most productive habitats in the world. Their benefits, also called “ecosystem services,” can be measured in a variety of ways, such as by counting the number of birding or boating trips made there or by measuring the amount of fish or seafood produced.

If you eat seafood, chances are before ending on up your plate, that fish spent at least some of its life in an estuary. Estuaries provide critical habitat for over 75% of our commercial fish catch and 80% of our recreational fish catch. Coastal waters support more than 69 million jobs and generate half the nation’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) [PDF]. Estuaries also improve water quality by filtering excess nutrients and pollutants and protect the coast from storms and flooding.

Another, perhaps less obvious, benefit of estuaries is that they are also excellent at removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and storing it in the ground long-term. In fact, estuary habitats like mangroves, salt marshes, and seagrasses store so much carbon, scientists gave it its own name: blue carbon.

How do we know how much carbon is in an estuary? Scientists can collect soil cores from habitats such as a salt marsh and analyze them in the lab to determine how much carbon is in the soil and how long it’s been there.

But you can also see the difference. Carbon-rich soils are made up of years of accumulated sediment and dead and decaying plant and animal material. These soils are dark, thick, and mucky—much different from the sandy, mineral soils you might find along a beach.

Science continues to improve our understanding of ecosystem services, such as blue carbon, and their value to people. For example, in 2014 a study was conducted in the Snohomish Estuary in Washington’s Puget Sound to find out just how much carbon could be stored by restoring estuaries. The study estimated that full restoration of the Snohomish Estuary (over 9,884 acres) would remove 8.9 million tons of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere—that’s roughly equal to taking 1,760,000 cars off the road for an entire year.

Estuary restoration would not only help to mitigate the effects of climate change but would have a positive cascading effect on other ecosystem services as well, including providing habitat for fish, improving water quality, and preventing erosion.

Healthy estuaries provide us with so many important benefits, yet these habitats are some of the most threatened in the world and are disappearing at alarming rates. In less than 100 years, most of these habitats may be lost, due to human development and the effects of climate change, such as sea-level rise.

When we lose estuaries and other coastal habitats, we lose all of the ecosystem services they provide, including carbon storage. When coastal habitat is drained or destroyed, the carbon stored in the ground is released back into the atmosphere and our coast becomes more vulnerable to storms and flooding. It is estimated that half a billion tons of carbon dioxide are released every year due to coastal and estuary habitat loss.

These benefits can also be compromised when coastal habitats are harmed by oil spills and chemical pollution. People also feel these impacts to nature, whether because an oil spill has closed their favorite beach or chemical dumping has made the fish a tribe relies on unsafe to eat.

Scientists and economists continue to increase our understanding of the many benefits provided by our coastal habitats, and land managers use this information to protect and restore habitats and their numerous services. Stay tuned for more this week as NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration and Restore America’s Estuaries explore how our use of nature suffers from pollution and why habitat restoration is so important.

Stefanie Simpson.Stefanie Simpson is the Blue Carbon Program Coordinator for Restore America’s Estuaries where she works to promote blue carbon as a tool for coastal restoration and conservation and coordinates the Blue Carbon National Network. Ms. Simpson is also a Returned Peace Corps Volunteer (Philippines 2010-12) and has her Master of Science in Environmental Studies.

The views expressed here reflect those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the official views of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) or the federal government.


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Supporting the Response to a Platform Fire and Oil Spill in Bayou Sorrel, Louisiana

Fire burns in one of several oil tanks on a platform in a bayou.

The Coast Guard, with state and local partners, is responding to an oil production platform fire in Bayou Sorrel, Louisiana, March 15, 2016. One of the tanks reportedly collapsed, releasing an unknown amount of crude oil into a canal. (U.S. Coast Guard)

On the morning of March 15, 2016, the U.S. Coast Guard requested assistance from NOAA‘s Office of Response and Restoration for an oil production platform fire near Berry Lake in Bayou Sorrel, Louisiana.

While crews were working to dismantle the platform, one of the oil storage tanks caught fire. No injuries have been reported. The U.S. Coast Guard is leading the response with state and local agencies.

The platform and one of its storage tanks burned throughout the day on March 15 before the tank partially collapsed, releasing crude oil into a canal. Most of the oil released from the tank continued to burn on the water surface and was consumed.

Responders contained the remaining oil and burn residue in the canal with boom.

Fire-fighting vessel sprays water on an oil tank on a platform in a bayou.

Response crews extinguished the fire on the oil production platform and will continue to monitor the scene in Bayou Sorrel, Louisiana. (U.S. Coast Guard)

A second tank on the platform subsequently caught fire but has been extinguished. The two storage tanks had a maximum capacity of more than 33,000 gallons of crude oil.

We are assisting the Coast Guard’s response by coordinating local weather forecast support, modeling the potential trajectory of spills of oil or burn residue, and outlining the wildlife and habitats that could be at risk in the area. A NOAA Scientific Support Coordinator has reported to the response to provide further help and assess potential impacts of the oil spill.

Bayou Sorrel is predominantly composed of seasonally flooded, forested wetlands with some patches of freshwater marshes and open canals. While oil is unlikely to penetrate flooded or water-saturated soils, it will readily coat and become mixed with floating debris such as branches and leaves.

A variety of birds, particularly diving and wading birds and waterfowl, may be present in the area and might be at risk of coming into contact with oil, which can coat their feathers, be ingested, or inhaled. In addition, fish and invertebrates such as crawfish may be present or spawning in the marshy habitats surrounding the oil platform, and alligators and small-to-medium-sized mammals including mink and river otters may be nearby.

In 2013, NOAA provided on-site technical support for an oil spill from a pipeline in Bayou Sorrel and helped coordinate a controlled burn of the spilled oil in the area’s flooded, wooded swamps. Additionally, we assisted with other oil spills in this area in 2015, 2007, and 1988.

Look for more information about the current oil spill and fire here and at the U.S. Coast Guard’s media site.


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NOAA Scientist Helps Make Mapping Vital Seagrass Habitat Easier and More Accurate

Shoal grass seagrass on a sandy ocean floor.

Seagrass beds serve as important habitat for a variety of marine life, and understanding their growth patterns better can help fisheries management and restoration efforts. (NOAA)

Amy Uhrin was sensing a challenge ahead of her. As a NOAA scientist working on her PhD, she was studying the way seagrasses grow in different patterns along the coast, and she knew that these underwater plants don’t always create lush, unbroken lawns beneath the water’s surface.

Where she was working, off the North Carolina coast near the Outer Banks, things like the churning motion of waves and the speed of tides can cause seagrass beds to grow in patchy formations. Clusters of bigger patches of seagrass here, some clusters of smaller patches over there. Round patches here, elongated patches over there.

Uhrin wanted to be able to look at aerial images showing large swaths of seagrass habitat and measure how much was actually seagrass, rather than bare sand on the bottom of the estuary. Unfortunately, traditional methods for doing this were tedious and tended to produce rather rough estimates. These involved viewing high-resolution aerial photographs, taken from fixed-wing planes, on a computer monitor and having a person digitally draw lines around the approximate edges of seagrass beds.

While that can be fairly accurate for continuous seagrass beds, it becomes more problematic for areas with lots of small patches of seagrass included inside a single boundary. For the patchy seagrass beds Uhrin was interested in, these visual methods tended to overestimate the actual area of seagrass by 70% to more than 1,500%. There had to be a better way.

Seeing the Light

Patches of seagrass beds of different sizes visible from the air.

Due to local environmental conditions, some coastal areas are more likely to produce patchy patterns in seagrass, rather than large beds with continuous cover. (NOAA)

At the time, Uhrin was taking a class on remote sensing technology, which uses airborne—or, in the case of satellites, space-borne—sensors to gather information about the Earth’s surface (including information about oil spills). She knew that the imagery gathered from satellites (i.e. Landsat) is usually not at a fine enough resolution to view the details of the seagrass beds she was studying. Each pixel on Landsat images is 30 meters by 30 meters, while the aerial photography gathered from low-flying planes often delivered resolution of less than a meter (a little over three feet).

Uhrin wondered if she could apply to the aerial photographs some of the semi-automated classification tools from imagery visualization and analysis programs which are typically used with satellite imagery. She decided to give it a try.

First, she obtained aerial photographs taken of six sites in the shallow coastal waters of North Carolina’s Albemarle-Pamlico Estuary System. Using a GIS program, she drew boundaries (called “polygons”) around groups of seagrass patches to the best of her ability but in the usual fashion, which includes a lot of unvegetated seabed interspersed among seagrass patches.

Six aerial photographs of seagrass habitat off the North Carolina coast, with yellow boundary lines drawn around general areas of seagrass habitat.

Aerial photographs show varying patterns of seagrass growth at six study sites off the North Carolina coast. The yellow line shows the digitally drawn boundaries around seagrass and how much of that area is unvegetated for patchy seagrass habitat. (North Carolina Department of Transportation)

Next, Uhrin isolated those polygons of seagrass beds and deleted everything else in each image except the polygon. This created a smaller, easier-to-scan area for the imagery visualization program to analyze. Then, she “trained” the program to recognize what was seagrass vs. sand, based on spectral information available in the aerial photographs.

Though limited compared to what is available from satellite sensors, aerial photographs contain red, blue, and green wavelengths of light in the visible spectrum. Because plants absorb red and blue light and reflect green light (giving them their characteristic green appearance), Uhrin could train the computer program to classify as seagrass the patches where green light was reflected.

Classify in the Sky

Amy Uhrin stands in shallow water documenting data about seagrass inside a square frame of PVC pipe.

NOAA scientist Amy Uhrin found a more accurate and efficient approach to measuring how much area was actually seagrass, rather than bare sand, in aerial images of coastal North Carolina. (NOAA)

To Uhrin’s excitement, the technique worked well, allowing her to accurately identify and map smaller patches of seagrass and export those maps to another computer program where she could precisely measure the distance between patches and determine the size, number, and orientation of seagrass patches in a given area.

“This now allows you to calculate how much of the polygon is actually seagrass vegetation,” said Uhrin, “which is good for fisheries management.” The young of many commercially important species, such as blue crabs, clams, and flounder, live in seagrass beds and actively use the plants. Young scallops, for example, cling to the blades of seagrass before sliding off and burrowing into the sediment as adults.

In addition, being able to better characterize the patterns of seagrass habitat could come in handy during coastal restoration planning and assessment. Due to local environmental conditions, some areas are more likely to produce patchy patterns in seagrass. As a result, efforts to restore seagrass habitat should aim for restoring not just cover but also the original spatial arrangement of the beds.

And, as Uhrin noted, having this information can “help address seagrass resilience in future climate change scenarios and altered hurricane regimes, as patchy seagrass areas are known to be more susceptible to storms than continuous meadows.”

The results of this study, which was done in concert with a colleague at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, have been published in the journal Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science.


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What Are Our Options for Restoring Lands Around Washington’s Hanford Nuclear Reservation?

Shrub-covered plains next to the Columbia River and bluffs beyond.

The dry shrub-steppe habitat at Washington’s Hanford Nuclear Reservation is rare for the region because it is so extensive, intact, and relatively healthy. (Department of Energy)

Many people might be inclined to write off the wide, dry plains stretching around the Hanford Nuclear Reservation as lost lands. After all, this area in eastern Washington was central to the top-secret Manhattan Project, where plutonium was produced for nuclear bombs used against Japan near the end of World War II. In addition, nuclear production continued at Hanford throughout the Cold War, ending in 1987.

This history left an undeniable legacy of pollution, which is still being studied and addressed today.

Yet this land and the Columbia River that curves in and around it are far from being irredeemable. The Hanford site encompasses 586 square miles. Yes, some parts of Hanford have been degraded by development from its nine (now decommissioned) nuclear reactors and associated processing plants and from chemical and radionuclide contamination.

But the site also includes vast, continuous tracts of healthy arid lands that are rare in a modern reality where little of nature remains untouched by humans.

Where We Are and Where We’re Going

This potential is precisely what encourages Christina Galitsky, who recently joined NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration to work on the Hanford case. Currently, she is leading a study at Hanford as part of a collaborative effort known as a Natural Resource Damage Assessment, a process which is seeking to assess and make up for the years of environmental impacts at the nuclear site.

“The purpose of our study is to begin to understand habitat restoration options for Hanford,” Galitsky explained. “We are starting with terrestrial habitats and will later move to the aquatic environment.”

A worker drains a pipe that contains liquid chromium next to a nuclear reactor.

From the 1940s to 1980s, the Hanford site was used to produce plutonium in nuclear weapons, and which today is home to the largest environmental cleanup in the United States. Here, a cleanup worker deals with chromium pollution near one of the decommissioned nuclear reactors. (Department of Energy)

NOAA is involved with eight other federal, state, and tribal organizations that make up the Hanford Natural Resource Trustee Council, which was chartered to address natural resources impacted by past and ongoing releases of hazardous substances on the Hanford Nuclear Reservation.

The study, begun in the summer of 2015, will be crucial for helping to inform not only restoration approaches but also the magnitude of the environmental injury assessment.

“We want to understand what habitat conditions we have at Hanford now,” Galitsky said, “what restoration has been done in similar dry-climate, shrub-steppe habitats elsewhere and at Hanford; what restoration techniques would be most successful and least costly over the long term; and how to best monitor and adapt our approaches over time to ensure maximum ecological benefit far into the future.”

The Hanford site is dominated by shrub-steppe habitat. Shrub-steppe is characterized by shrubs, such as big sagebrush, grasses, and other plants that manage to survive with extremely little rainfall. The larger Hanford site, comprised of the Hanford Reach National Monument and the central area where nuclear production occurred, contains the largest blocks of relatively intact shrub-steppe habitat that remain in the Columbia River Basin.

More Work Ahead

Roads and facilities of Hanford next to the Columbia River with bluffs and hills beyond.

The Hanford site, which the Columbia River passes through, encompasses 586 square miles of sweeping plains alongside an atomic legacy. (Department of Energy)

Galitsky’s team includes experts from NOAA, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, and other trustees involved in the damage assessment. For this study, they are reviewing reports, visiting reference and restoration sites in the field, creating maps, and organizing the information into a database to access and analyze it more effectively.

They presented their preliminary results to the trustee council in November. So far, they are finding that limited restoration has been done at Hanford, and, as is fairly common, long-term data tracking the success of those efforts are even more limited. Over the next six months, they will expand their research to restoration of similar shrub-steppe habitats elsewhere in the Columbia Basin and beyond.

Thanks to additional funding that stretches into 2017, the team will begin a second phase of the study later this year. Plans for this phase include recommending restoration and long-term habitat management approaches for the trustee council’s restoration plan and examining the benefits and drawbacks of conducting shrub-steppe restoration both on and off the Hanford site.

Steppe up to the Challenge

Two American White Pelicans fly over the Columbia River and Hanford's shrubby grasslands.

A surprising diversity of plants and animals, such as these American White Pelicans, can be found in the lands and waters of Hanford. (NOAA)

The natural areas around Hanford show exceptional diversity in a relatively small area. More than 250 bird species, 700 plant species, 2,000 insect species, and myriad reptiles, amphibians, and mammals inhabit the site. In addition, its lands are or have been home to many rare, threatened, and sensitive plants, birds, reptiles, and mammals, such as the Pygmy rabbit

Furthermore, the shrub-steppe habitat at Hanford holds special significance because this habitat is so rare in the Columbia Basin. Elsewhere in the region, urban and agricultural development, invasive species, and altered fire regimes continue to threaten what remains of it. As Galitsky points out, “At Hanford there is an opportunity to restore areas of degraded shrub-steppe habitat and protect these unique resources for generations.”

Restoring habitats on or near the Hanford site may create benefits not only on a local level but also more broadly on a landscape scale. These efforts have the potential to increase the connectivity of the landscape, creating corridors for wildlife and plants across the larger Columbia River Basin. The team will be evaluating these potential landscape-scale effects in the second phase of this project. Stay tuned.


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Working to Reverse the Legacy of Lead in New Jersey’s Raritan Bay

Person standing at a fenced-off beach closed to the public.

Some of the beach front at Old Bridge Waterfront Park in New Jersey’s Raritan Bay Slag Superfund site is closed to fishing, swimming, and sunbathing due to lead contamination leaching from metal slag used in the construction of a seawall and to fortify a jetty. (NOAA)

Once lined with reeds, oysters, and resort towns, New Jersey’s Raritan Bay, like many other bodies of water, today is feeling the effects of industrial transformation begun decades ago.

Around 1925, the National Lead Company became the largest lead company in the United States. The company is perhaps best known for their white-lead paints, sold under the Dutch Boy label. One of its many facilities was located in Perth Amboy, a town on the western edge of Raritan Bay, where it operated a lead smelter that generated wastes containing lead and other hazardous substances.

A Toxic Toll

Illustration of a little boy painting used in Dutch Boy paints logo.

This image was adopted by the National Lead Company in 1913 for its Dutch Boy paints. A version of it still is in use today. (New York Public Library Digital Collections/Public domain)

During the late 1960s and early 1970s, slag from National Lead’s lead smelter in Perth Amboy was used as building material to construct a seawall along the southern shoreline of Raritan Bay, several miles to the south of the facility.

Slag is a stony waste by-product of smelting or refining processes containing various metals. Slag, battery casings, and demolition debris were used to fill in some areas of a nearby marsh and littered the marsh and beaches along the bay.

In September 1972, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection received a tip that the slag being placed along Raritan Bay at the Laurence Harbor beachfront contained lead.

Over time, contamination from the slag and other wastes began leaching into the water, soil, and sediments of Raritan Bay, which is home to a variety of aquatic life, including flounder, clams, and horseshoe crabs, but evidence of the pollution only became available decades later.

Cleaner Futures

By 2007 the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection had confirmed high levels of lead and other metals in soils of Old Bridge Waterfront Park on Raritan Bay’s south shore. State and local officials put up temporary fencing and warning signs and notified the public about health concerns stemming from the lead in the seawall.

The following year, New Jersey asked the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to consider cleaning up contaminated areas along the seawall because of the elevated levels of metals. By November 2009, the EPA confirmed the contamination and declared this polluted area in and near Old Bridge Waterfront Park a Superfund site (called Raritan Bay Slag Superfund site). They installed signs and fencing at a creek, marsh, and some beaches to restrict access and protect public health.

In May 2013 EPA selected a cleanup strategy, known as a “remedy,” to address risks to the public and environment from the pollution, and in January 2014 they ordered NL Industries, which in 1971 had changed its name from the National Lead Company, to conduct a $79 million cleanup along Raritan Bay.

Cleanup will involve digging up and dredging the slag, battery casings, associated waste, and sediment and soils where lead exceeds 400 parts per million. An EPA news release from January 2014 emphasizes the concern over lead:

“Lead is a toxic metal that is especially dangerous to children because their growing bodies can absorb more of it than adults. Lead in children can result in I.Q. deficiencies, reading and learning disabilities, reduced attention spans, hyperactivity and other behavioral disorders. The order requires the removal of lead-contaminated material and its replacement with clean material in order to reduce the risk to those who use the beach, particularly children.”

Identifying Impacts

Public health hazard sign about lead contamination on a beach and jetty.

A jetty and surrounding coastal area on Raritan Bay is contaminated with lead and other hazardous materials from slag originating at the National Lead Company’s Perth Amboy, New Jersey, facility. (NOAA)

After the Raritan Bay Slag site became a Superfund site in late 2009, NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration worked with the EPA to determine the nature, extent, and effects of the contamination. Under a Natural Resource Damage Assessment, NOAA’s Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program and our co-trustees, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, have been assessing and quantifying the likely impacts to the natural resources and the public’s use of those resources that may have occurred due to the contamination along Raritan Bay.

As part of this work, we are identifying opportunities for restoration projects that will compensate for the environmental harm as well as for people’s inability to use the affected natural resources, for example, due to beach closures and restricted access to fishing.

“The south shore of Raritan Bay is an important ecological, recreational, and economic resource for the New York-New Jersey Harbor metropolitan area,” said NOAA Regional Resource Coordinator Lisa Rosman. “Cleanup and restoration are key to improving conditions and allowing public access to this valuable resource.”

Watch for future updates on progress toward restoration on Raritan Bay.


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What’s It Like Saving Endangered Baby Sea Turtles in Costa Rica?

This is a post by the Office of Response and Restoration’s Valerie Chu.

Three newly hatched Olive Ridley sea turtles crawl across sand.

Newly hatched Olive Ridley sea turtles make their way toward the ocean. (Used with permission of Julie Watanuki)

I was standing on a sandy Costa Rican beach in the dark of night when I received a hard lesson in the challenges of saving an endangered species. It was my first night volunteering during a seven-day stint on a sea turtle conservation project with the Asociación de Voluntarios para el Servicio en Áreas Protegidas (ASVO) in Montezuma, Costa Rica.

I was charged with protecting sea turtle nests in the ASVO hatchery from poachers and hungry wildlife. On the night of my very first shift, I discovered something terrible had happened. A net covering one of the sea turtle nests had been taken off, and when I looked inside, I found the remains of eight dead baby turtles with just their heads bitten off. When I looked in the back of the hatchery, I noticed that some eggs also had been dug up and eaten.

It was heartbreaking, but furthered my resolve to protect these vulnerable turtles.

Later that night, I discovered who the culprits were—two raccoons. Throughout my shift, the two raccoons would sneak back and I would scare them away each time. Fortunately, the raccoons did not come back in the following days. I was grateful I could play a small part in giving young sea turtles a head start in a long and dangerous journey.

Thinking (and Acting) Globally

Rows of nets cover sandy sea turtle nests, surrounded by fencing.

Volunteers with ASVO place sea turtle eggs collected from Costa Rican beaches into a hatchery with nets covering the nests to protect them from poachers, predators, and other threats. The eggs hatch less than two months later. (Used with permission of Valerie Chu)

Ever since I graduated from the University of Washington in 2012, I’ve wanted to make a positive impact on the dwindling populations of endangered species around the world. I started by volunteering to help orphaned and injured wildlife at the PAWS Wildlife Center near Seattle, Washington (where I recently volunteered during a vegetable oil spill).

As I’ve worked with these animals, my desire of making a global impact on wildlife conservation has increased more and more. In December 2015, I finally got my chance to do it when I traveled to Costa Rica to volunteer with ASVO.

ASVO’s primary goal is to promote active conservation in protected areas, beaches, and rural communities of Costa Rica. They have a volunteer program in around 20 different areas of the country, staffed by some 2,300 volunteers, comprising both local and international volunteers from around the world.

Turtle Time

I was working with Olive Ridley sea turtles, a vulnerable species likely to become endangered in the foreseeable future. Their main threats to survival are direct harvest of adults and eggs, incidental capture in commercial fisheries, loss of nesting habitat, and predators.

During nesting season in Costa Rica, people with ASVO patrol the beaches for female turtles laying their eggs and then gather the eggs and place them at a hatchery. This way, the eggs are protected from poachers, predators, and other threats, both human and environmental. The eggs incubate in the hatchery for between 52 and 58 days before hatching.

Because I had arrived at the end of sea turtle nesting season, I mostly handled the hatchlings and released them into the ocean. When the newly hatched turtles had completely emerged from their nests, I would—while wearing a glove—pick up each one from its nest and head to the ocean. I would then set the turtles down on the sand and watch them walk into the ocean. Some turtles would lose their way because they would walk in the wrong direction or get swept aside by a big wave, so it was my job to make sure they found their way to the ocean without mishap.

Most of my turtle volunteer shifts were at night, and because sea turtles are very sensitive to white light, we could only use a red light while handling them. During night shifts, we were always paired with a second person, allowing us to have one person handle the hatched turtles while the other could stand guard at the hatchery (a very important job, as I observed my first night).

After releasing the turtles, I had to record the number of turtles released, the time of the release, and other notes. Each of the nests held roughly 80-100 eggs, and about 50-70 eggs would hatch, which was an incredible sight.

Don’t Stop (Thinking About What You Can Do)

This trip was an absolutely amazing experience for me. By working with these turtles, I began to fulfill my dream of making a global impact on endangered species populations. On top of that, I was able to connect with other people who care about these issues and form a deep bond over this shared experience.

In the future, I hope to continue volunteering for the conservation of imperiled species like the tiny sea turtles I encountered in Costa Rica. In 2017, I plan to travel to Thailand to work with the endangered elephant population.

But there are lots of ways to protect endangered species at home too. How do you plan to help?

Three people help wash an oiled goose in big soapy wash tubs.

Valerie Chu is an Environmental Scientist who has been providing support for the Office of Response and Restoration’s Emergency Response Division software projects since 2012, when she obtained her undergraduate degree in Environmental Science and Resource Management and then started working with NOAA and Genwest. During her spare time, she volunteers with animal welfare-related causes such as PAWS and Zazu’s House Parrot Sanctuary.