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Who Thinks Crude Oil Is Delicious? These Ocean Microbes Do

This is a post by Dalina Thrift-Viveros, a chemist with NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration.

Edge of oil slick at ocean surface.

There are at least seven species of ocean bacteria that can survive by eating oil and nothing else. However, usually only a small number of oil-eating bacteria live in any given part of the ocean, and it takes a few days for their population to increase to take advantage of their abundant new food source during an oil spill. (NOAA)

Would you look at crude oil and think, “Mmm, tasty…”? Probably not.

But if you were a microbe living in the ocean you might have a different answer. There are species of marine bacteria in several families, including Marinobacter, Oceanospiralles, Pseudomonas, and Alkanivorax, that can eat compounds from petroleum as part of their diet. In fact, there are at least seven species of bacteria that can survive solely on oil [1].

These bacteria are nature’s way of removing oil that ends up in the ocean, whether the oil is there because of oil spills or natural oil seeps. Those of us in the oil spill response community call this biological process of removing oil “biodegradation.”

What Whets Their Oily Appetites?

Communities of oil-eating bacteria are naturally present throughout the world’s oceans, in places as different as the warm waters of the Persian Gulf [2] and the Arctic conditions of the Chukchi Sea north of Alaska [3].

Each community of bacteria is specially adapted for the environment where it is living, and studies have found that bacteria consume oil most quickly when they are kept in conditions similar to their natural environments [4]. So that means that if you took Arctic bacteria and brought them to an oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, they would not eat the oil as quickly as the bacteria that are already living in the Gulf. You would get the same result in the reverse case, with the Arctic bacteria beating out the Gulf bacteria at an oil spill in Alaska.

Other factors that affect how quickly bacteria degrade oil include the amount of oxygen and nutrients in the water, the temperature of the water, the surface area of the oil, and the kind of oil that they are eating [4][5][6]. That means the bacteria that live in a given area will consume the oil from a spill in the summer more quickly than a spill in the winter, and will eat light petroleum products such as gasoline or diesel much more quickly than heavy petroleum products like fuel oil or heavy crude oil.

Oil-eating microbes fluorescing in a petri dish.

This bacteria, fluorescing under ultraviolet light in a petri dish, is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It has been used during oil spills to break down the components of oil. (Credit: Wikimedia user Sun14916/Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported license)

Asphalt, the very heaviest component of crude oil, is actually so difficult for bacteria to eat that we can use it to pave our roads without worrying about the road rotting away.

What About During Oil Spills?

People are often interested in the possibility of using bacteria to help clean up oil spills, and most oil left in the ocean long enough is consumed by bacteria.

However, most oil spills last only a few days, and during that time other natural “weathering” processes, such as evaporation and wave-induced breakup of the oil, have a much bigger effect on the appearance and location of the oil than bacteria do. This is because there are usually only a small number of oil-eating bacteria in any given part of the ocean, and it takes a few days for their population to increase to take advantage of their abundant new food source.

Because of this lag time, biodegradation was not originally included in NOAA’s oil weathering software ADIOS. ADIOS is a computer model designed to help oil spill responders by predicting how much of the oil will stay in the ocean during the first five days of a spill.

However, oil spills like the 2010 Deepwater Horizon well blowout, which released oil for about three months, demonstrate that there is a need for a model that can tell us what would happen to the oil over longer periods of time. My team in the Emergency Response Division at NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration has recognized that. As a result, version 3 of ADIOS, due to be released later in 2015, will take into account biodegradation.

My team and I used data published in scientific journals on the speed of oil biodegradation under different conditions to develop an equation that can predict how fast the components of oil will be consumed, and how the speed of this process can change based on the surface area-to-mass ratio of the oil and the climate it is in. A report describing the technical details of the model will be published in the upcoming Proceedings of the Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program Technical Seminar, which will be released after the June conference.

Including oil biodegradation in our ADIOS software will provide oil spill responders with an even better tool to help them make decisions about their options during a response. As part of the team working on this project, it has provided me with a much greater appreciation for the important role that oil-eating bacteria play in the long-term effort to keep our oceans free of oil.

I know I’m certainly glad they think oil is delicious.

Dalina Thrift-ViverosDalina Thrift-Viveros is a Seattle-based chemist who has been providing chemistry expertise for Emergency Response Division software projects and spill responders since 2011, when she first started working with NOAA and Genwest. When she is not involved in chemistry-related activities, Dalina sings with the rock band Whiskey River and plays sax with her jazz group, The Paul Engstrom Trio.

Literature cited

[1] Yakimov, M.M., K.N. Timmis, and P.N. Golyshin. “Obligate oil-degrading marine bacteria,” Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 2007, 18(3), pp. 257-266.

[2] Hassanshahian, M., G. Emtiazi, and S.Cappello. “Isolation and characterization of crude-oil-degrading bacteria from the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea,” Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2012, 64, pp. 7–12.

[3] McFarlin, K.M., R.C. Prince, R. Perkins, and M.B. Leigh. “Biodegradation of Dispersed Oil in Arctic Seawater at -1°C,” PLoS ONE, 2014, 9:e84297, pp. 1-8.

[4] Atlas, R.M. “Petroleum Biodegradation and Oil Spill Bioremediation,” Marine Pollution Bulletin, 1995, 31, pp. 178-182.

[5] Atlas, R.M. and T.C. Hazen. “Oil Biodegradation and Bioremediation: A Tale of the Two Worst Spills in U.S. History,” Environmental Science & Technology, 2011, 45, pp. 6709-6715.

[6] Head, I.M., D.M. Jones, and W.F.M. Röling, “Marine microorganisms make a meal of oil,” Nature Reviews Microbiology, 2006, 4, pp. 173-182.


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On the Front Lines of an Oil Spill in My Own Backyard: A Report from Santa Barbara, California

This is a post by Gabrielle Dorr, NOAA/Montrose Settlements Restoration Program Outreach Coordinator.

Oiled boulders on a California beach with cleanup workers in the distance.

NOAA has been involved with the May 19, 2015 oil spill resulting from a pipeline break at Refugio State Beach, near Santa Barbara, California, which released an estimated 100,000 gallons of crude oil, with a reported 21,000 gallons reaching the ocean. (Bill Stanley/U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service)

When I first heard about the pipeline oil spill at Refugio State Beach near Santa Barbara, California, a couple weeks ago, I felt concerned about the fact that it was only a few hours up the coast from where I currently live and work. I couldn’t stop thinking about what the long-term impacts would be to the beautiful beaches we have here in southern California.

As a NOAA communications specialist who had cut her teeth in providing communications support for the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, I thought I knew roughly what to expect when I was called in to help in Santa Barbara.

When I was asked to provide support for that oil spill in July 2010, oil had been gushing into the ocean for several months and was washing up on beaches bordering five states far from my home in California. I was able to get out into the field in Louisiana to see firsthand what an oiled marsh looks like, but that was months after the spill began. In addition, the massive scale of the response and damage assessment efforts made it tough to grasp the full picture of the spill.

Still, it was important for me to see the impacts for myself, so that I could better tell the story about what happened and what NOAA and our partners were going to do to make it right.

From the Gulf of Mexico to Southern California

Fish being measured on a table.

After an oil spill, scientists collect lots of data on the potential impacts of the oil and response efforts to fish, birds, and wildlife. (NOAA)

This time, at Refugio State Beach, was different. I was stationed at a command center for those working to assess the environmental impacts of the spill only three days after a pipeline released up to 105,000 gallons of oil, with at least 21,000 gallons reaching the Pacific Ocean north of Santa Barbara.

From the start of this oil spill, I was able to see the inner workings of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment process and how complex and challenging this process can be for the scientists involved. Biologists, armed with notebooks and cameras, were diligently filling out paperwork and going over every painstaking detail of their data. Collecting good data is extremely important at this early stage because it will be used as evidence showing the oil spill’s potential impacts to wildlife and natural areas.

The next day I was asked to follow a team into the field to take photos of them collecting fish samples from one of the oil spill’s “hot zones.” At the stretch of Refugio State Beach where the majority of the oil cleanup activities were taking place, it was easy to be overwhelmed by the scene. There were a huge number of trucks, cars, buses, people in hard hats, reporters, and even an eating area with eight large tables set up under tents.

That day I was part of a team of nine people who would be sampling fish for oil contamination, with representatives from NOAA, the National Park Service, California Department of Fish and Wildlife, and an environmental consulting firm representing Plains All American Pipeline, the company responsible for the leaking pipeline. When we checked in with the on-site safety officer, he told us that we would need to wear Tyvek suits, booties taped around our calves, gloves, and hard hats.

Oil and Fish Don’t Mix

Out on the beach it was hard not to step in oil since it covered most of the cobble rocks lining the beach in a thick band. I watched as the team baited their hooks and cast their lines in the water. The fishing team spread out along the beach, making the job of running buckets of samples between those catching and processing the fish even more challenging.

Once I had finished taking photos, I began shuttling buckets of fish from the edge of the contaminated zone to a picnic table several yards away. There, two women were working hard to process the samples of fish that will later be analyzed for oil contaminants in a lab.

The team caught 18 barred surfperch in total, giving us a robust sample of the local population which might have been affected by the oil spill. It was a successful day of sampling, but at the same time, I found it difficult not to think about how all of that oil was going to be cleaned off of those rocks.

Working at the front line of the oil spill at Refugio State Beach was a unique experience for me, but it also feels a little too close to home. When I was responding to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, I was stationed two hours away from the nearest coast and lived almost 2,000 miles away in California.

I found having an oil spill in your own backyard is much more personal and reminds me of how important it is to plan, train, and prepare for oil spills long before any oil hits the water.

For more information on the response to this oil spill, visit the Refugio Response Joint Information Center website.

Gabrielle Dorr

Gabrielle Dorr.

Gabrielle Dorr is the Outreach Coordinator for the Montrose Settlements Restoration Program as part of NOAA’s Restoration Center. She lives and works in Long Beach, California, where she is always interacting with the local community through outreach events, public meetings, and fishing education programs.


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Like a Summer Blockbuster, Oil Spills and Hurricanes Can Take the Nation by Storm

Wrecked sailboats and debris along a dock after a hurricane.

The powerful wind and waves of a hurricane can damage vessels, releasing their fuel into coastal waterways. (NOAA)

From Twister and The Perfect Storm to The Day After Tomorrow, storms and other severe weather often serve as the dramatic backdrop for popular movies. Some recent movies, such as the Sharknado series, even combine multiple fearsome events—along with a high degree of improbability—when they portray, for example, a hurricane sweeping up huge numbers of sharks into twisters descending on a major West Coast city.

But back in the world of reality, what could be worse than a hurricane?

How about a hurricane combined with a massive oil spill? It’s not just a pitch for a new movie. Oil spills actually are a pretty common outcome of powerful storms like hurricanes.

There are a couple primary scenarios involving oil spills and hurricanes. The first is a hurricane causing one or more oil spills, which is what happened during Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and after Hurricane Sandy in 2012. These kinds of oil spills typically result from a storm’s damage to coastal oil facilities, including refineries, as well as vessels being damaged or sunken and leaking their fuel.

The second, far less common scenario is a hurricane blowing in during an existing oil spill, which is what happened during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

Hurricane First, Then Oil Spills

Stranded and wrecked vessels are one of the iconic images showing the aftermath of a hurricane. In most cases those vessels have oil on board. And don’t forget about all the cars that get flooded. Each of these sources may contain relatively small amounts of fuel, but hurricanes can cause big oil spills too.

Additional damage is often caused by the storm surge, as big oil and chemical storage tanks can get lifted off their foundations (or sheared off in the case of the picture below).

A damaged boat setting on a  fuel dock.

A boat, displaced and damaged in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, in late summer of 2005 in the Gulf of Mexico, an area frequented by both hurricanes and oil spills. (NOAA)

Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005 passed through the center of the Gulf of Mexico oil industry and caused dozens of major oil spills and thousands of small spills.

One of the largest stemmed from the Murphy Oil refinery in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana. Dikes surrounding the oil tanks at the refinery were full from flood waters, so when a multi-million gallon tank failed, oil flowed easily into a nearby neighborhood, leaving oil on thousands of homes and businesses already reeling from the flood waters.

Hurricanes can also create navigation hazards that result in later spills. Hurricane Rita, hitting the Gulf in September 2005, sank several offshore oil platforms. While some were recovered, others were actually left missing. Several months later, the tank barge DBL 152 “found” one of these missing rigs, spilling nearly 2 million gallons of thick slurry oil after striking the sunken and displaced platform hiding below the ocean surface.

A large ship on its side, leaking dark oil on the ocean surface.

In November 2005, tank barge DBL 152 struck the submerged remains of a pipeline service platform that collapsed a few months earlier during Hurricane Rita. The double-hulled barge was carrying approximately 5 million gallons of slurry oil, a type of oil denser than seawater, which meant as the thick oil poured out of the barge, it sank to the seafloor. (Entrix)

Oil Spills and Then a Hurricane Hits

So what happens if a hurricane hits an existing oil spill?

This was a big concern during the summer of 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico. There was an ever-growing slick on the ocean surface, oil already on the shore, and lots of response equipment and personnel scattered across the Gulf cleaning up the Deepwater Horizon spill.

There was a lot of speculation as to what might happen as hurricane season began. Hurricane Alex, a relatively small storm, was the first test. The first impact came days before the storm, as response vessels evacuated the area. Hurricane Alex halted response efforts such as skimming and burning for several days. Hundreds of miles of oil booms protecting the shoreline were displaced by the growing surf.

As the hurricane passed through, floating oil was quickly dispersed by the powerful winds and waves, and the same wave energy buried, uncovered, and moved oil on the shore or in submerged mats of oil near the shoreline. Some oil was likely carried inland by sea spray and flood waters from the storm surge. Oil dissolved in the water column near the surface became even more dispersed, but the deep waters of the Gulf were well out of reach of the stormy commotion at the surface, and the leaking wellhead continued to gush.

But the Deepwater Horizon spill wasn’t the only time hurricanes have butted heads with a massive spill. In 1979, Mexico’s Ixtoc I well blowout in the southern Gulf of Mexico was hit by Hurricane Henri. The main impact of the hurricane’s winds was to dilute and weather the floating oil.

In some places along the Texas coast, beached oil was washed over the barrier islands into the bays behind them, while in other areas stranded oil was buried by clean sand. Many of these oiled areas were reworked a year later when Hurricane Allen battered the coast.

Preventing oil spills is a part of preparing for hurricanes. Coastal oil facilities and vessel owners do their best to batten down the hatches and get their vessels out of harm’s way, but we know that spills may still happen. Atlantic hurricane season, which runs from June 1 to November 30, is a busy time for those of us in oil spill response, and we breathe a sigh of relief when hurricane season ends—just in time for winter storm season to begin.


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NOAA Update on the Santa Barbara Oil Spill

Clumps of oil on a sandy beach.

Clumps of oil soon after the pipeline spill at Refugio State Beach. (Nick Schooler, all rights reserved.)

NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration is continuing to respond to the oil spill that resulted from a pipeline break at Refugio State Beach, near Santa Barbara, California, on May 19, 2015.

A reported 500 barrels (21,000 gallons) of crude oil flowed from the shore side of Highway 101 into the Pacific Ocean.

The source was secured shortly after the spill last week. Floating oil from the spill in the ocean has diminished but oil from the natural oil seeps in the area is always present. Natural oil seeps are somewhat like springs that leak oil and gas, instead of water, through fractures in the Earth’s crust.

The Office of Response and Restoration’s Jordan Stout, NOAA Scientific Support Coordinator, has continued to work on-scene throughout the response. According to Stout, any oil substantially east of Santa Barbara at this time is likely not related to the pipeline release.

OR&R has been providing overflight observations of the spill, information on fate and effects of the crude oil, potential environmental impacts both in the water and on the shore, and observation and data management for the Natural Resource Damage Assessment.

Oiled rocks below cliffs on a beach.

Oiled rocks in the area of the oil spill on May 27, 2015. (NOAA)

Cleanup efforts continue. According to the Unified Command, “The responsible party, Plains All-American Pipeline, is working closely with the Coast Guard, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, California Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Santa Barbara Office of Emergency Management.”

The Unified Command also reports that they are collecting and analyzing oil samples to determine whether the source is from natural seeps or spilled oil.

The Unified Command has reported that nearly all recoverable floating oil has been removed, but that skimmers and boom continue to be deployed to capture any remaining sheen. In addition, local experts have suggested that some sheen is associated with the area’s natural seeps.

According to Refugio Response Information, website of the Unified Command’s Joint Information Center, on May 27, 2015:

  • 956 people are working in support of the response.
  • As of May 26, over 10,000 gallons of oily water have been collected from the ocean. This is a mixture of 10 to 30 percent oil mixed with seawater.
  • There are 16 boats working on cleanup operations.
  • Shoreline assessment teams have combed 24.6 miles of shoreline to date, with 21.3 miles of shoreline impacted by oil.

The spill has caused harm to some area wildlife. According to the Unified Command, as of the end of the day May 26, there have been 49 birds collected, primarily brown pelicans, with 33 birds live and 16 dead. Of the 27 marine mammals collected—mostly California sea lions—18 are alive and 9 are dead. Several dolphins, none of which showed visible signs of oil, have been collected during this response and are being investigated. In addition, there have been a large number of invertebrates affected by the oil.

For scientists that are interested in conducting research on the spill site, or researchers that have ongoing projects in the spill area that need access to their field sites, please contact joe.stewart@wildlife.ca.gov.

The Refugio and El Capitan beaches will remain closed to the public until June 4, 2015.

For information on volunteering, call California Spill Watch at 1-800-228-4544 or visit the volunteer page of their website for details.

For further information, see the Joint information Center website: Refugio Response Information.


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NOAA and Partners Work Quickly to Save Corals Hit by Catamaran in Puerto Rico

Experts estimate that thousands of corals were broken, dislodged, buried, or destroyed when the 49-foot-long catamaran M/V Aubi ran aground along the north coast of Puerto Rico the night of May 14, 2015.

Traveling from the Dominican Republic to San Juan, Puerto Rico, the recreational boat became grounded on a coral reef, causing significant damage to the reef. As the vessel was being moved, the vessel’s two hulls slowly ground further into the reef, forming mounds of coral and leaving rubble on the ocean bottom. UPDATED 5/27/2015: The area of the vessel’s direct impact is 366 square meters (not quite 4,000 square feet), while partial impact covers more than 1,000 square meters (roughly 10,764 square feet).

On the night of the grounding, responders were immediately concerned about preventing a spill of the fuel on board the Aubi. The fuel had to be removed from the fuel tanks in the aluminum hulls of the catamaran before it was moved off of the coral reefs. By the evening of May 15, approximately 1,500 gallons of fuel had been removed successfully, readying the vessel to be towed from the reef. It was pulled free during high tide the next morning.

The location of the grounding is in a Puerto Rico Marine Reserve, overseen by the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources.

Crushing News and Rubble Rousers

The species of coral affected by the accident are mostly Diploria, or brain coral, and Acropora palmata, or elkhorn coral. Listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act, elkhorn coral is one of the most important reef-building corals in the Caribbean. Brain coral, found in the West Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean, is also an important reef-building coral and is known for its stony, brain-like appearance.

Although there was significant damage to the coral, an oil spill fortunately was prevented. While exposure to oil may kill corals, it more frequently reduces their ability to perform photosynthesis and causes growth or reproductive problems.

A multi-organizational team, which included NOAA, was able to salvage over 800 coral colonies (or fragments of colonies), moving them into deeper water nearby for temporary holding.  About 75 very large colonies of brain coral were righted but unable to be moved because of their size.

Broken brain coral on seafloor.

Brain coral (Diploria) and elkhorn coral (Acropora palmata) represent the majority of the coral species affected by this vessel grounding. (NOAA)

With buckets and by hand, the team filled 50 loads of rubble (approximately nine cubic yards) into open kayaks and small boats to transport them to a deeper underwater site that Puerto Rico Department of Natural Resources had approved for dumping.  All that material, moved in one day, would otherwise likely have washed into the healthy reef adjacent to the damaged one and potentially caused even more harm.

While poor weather has been preventing further work at the grounding site this past week, the team expects to restart work soon. Once that happens, initial estimates are that it will take 10-15 days to reattach the salvaged corals and to secure the rubble most at risk of moving. Stabilizing or removing the remaining rubble and rebuilding the topographic complexity of the flattened seafloor, accomplished using large pieces of rubble, would likely take an additional 10 days.

Both the location and nature of the corals dominating the area make it a very viable location for complete restoration using nursery-grown corals, but the scope and scale would still need to be determined.

Small Boat, Big Impact?

Healthy brain coral on seafloor.

An area of healthy corals near the site of the grounded M/V Aubi. Divers acted quickly to protect these corals from being damaged by the large amounts of rubble loose on the seafloor after the accident. (NOAA)

Even though the vessel involved in this grounding was relatively small, an unofficial, anecdotal report from the team working on the site noted that the amount of damage appeared comparable to that caused by the groundings of much larger vessels, such as tankers.

If not for the quick work of the U.S. Coast Guard, Puerto Rico Department of Natural Resources, NOAA, support contractors, volunteers from non-governmental organizations, and members of the local community, the damage could have been much worse.

Healthy coral reefs are among the most biologically and economically valuable ecosystems on earth.

According to NOAA’s Coral Reef Conservation Program, a little-known fact is that corals are in fact animals, even though they may exhibit some of the characteristics of plants and are often mistaken for rocks.

Learn more about how NOAA dives to the rescue of corals in the Caribbean when they become damaged by grounded ships.


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NOAA Continues to Support Response to Pipeline Break Spill near Santa Barbara, California

Two people shovel sand into a bag on a beach.

Beach cleanup crew members use a shovel to place gathered oil and affected sand into a bag as they clean up along a beach near Refugio State Beach, north of Santa Barbara. California on May 21, 2015. (U.S. Coast Guard)

POSTED:  MAY 22, 2015|UPDATED: MAY 25, 2015–On May 19, 2015, NOAA was notified of a 24-inch pipeline rupture that occurred earlier in the day near Refugio State Beach in Santa Barbara County, California. A reported 500 barrels (21,000 gallons) of crude oil flowed from the shore side of Highway 101 into the Pacific Ocean. NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration is continuing to respond to the oil spilled into the marine environment.

The source was secured. The remaining oil in the ocean consists of patches, streaks, and tarballs of various sizes and thicknesses, from both last week’s spill and natural oil seeps in the area.

The Office of Response and Restoration’s Jordan Stout, NOAA Scientific Support Coordinator has been on-scene throughout the response. OR&R has been providing overflight observation of the spill, information on fate and effects of the crude oil, potential environmental impacts both in the water and on the shore, and observation and data management for the Natural Resource Damage Assessment.

Cleanup efforts continue along the beach, in the water, and inland. According to the Unified Command, “The responsible party, Plains All-American Pipeline, is working closely with the Coast Guard, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, California Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Santa Barbara Office of Emergency Management.

According to the Refugio Response Joint Information Center website on May 24, 2015:

  • Over 220 cubic yards of oily solids and 1,250 cubic yards of oily soil have been recovered by responders.
  • As of May 24, almost 10,000 gallons of oily water have been collected from the ocean. This is a mixture of ten to thirty percent oil mixed with seawater.
  • Over 3,700 feet of boom have been deployed.
  • Work continues to remove oil from the kelp beds by spraying water’s surface with a fire monitor (water cannon) to create artificial current and agitating oil from the kelp. The oil is then “herded” and collected.
  • There are over 650 people responding to the spill.
  • Five shoreline cleanup assessment technique (SCAT) teams continue to work along the shore from Gaviota Beach to the west side of Ellwood Beach.
  • There are three helicopters, one vacuum truck and six wildlife recovery teams in operation.

The spill has harmed some area wildlife. The Refugio Response Joint Information Center reported on May 24 that, “There are nine brown pelicans and one Western Grebe that have been recovered and are being treated by wildlife specialists. Five pelicans have died. One sea lion impacted by oil was recovered and one has died. A dolphin that was recovered dead on Friday has undergone a necropsy; no visible oil was found on the animal. A second dolphin was recovered Saturday and is undergoing a necropsy to determine the cause of death. Updates will be available when it has been completed. There have been a large number of invertebrates affected by the oil, though due to complexities in counting and staffing constraints, it is unknown how many have been impacted.”

The Refugio and El Capitan beaches will remain closed to the public until June 4, 2015.

For further information, see the Joint information Center website: Refugio Response Information.

 

Two people walking along the oiled beach.

Oil mixed with marine vegetation at Las Varas Ranch. (U.S. Coast Guard)


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NOAA Joins Response to Pipeline Oil Spill at Refugio State Beach Near Santa Barbara, California

POSTED May 20, 2015 | UPDATED May 21, 2015: On May 19, 2015, NOAA was notified of a 24-inch pipeline rupture that occurred earlier in the day near Refugio State Beach in Santa Barbara County, California.

A reported 500 barrels (21,000 gallons) of crude oil flowed from the shore side of Highway 101 into the Pacific Ocean. The source has since been secured.

As of May 21, Office of Response and Restoration oceanographers estimate that forecasted winds and currents in the affected area of the oil spill will move the slick eastward parallel to the shore Thursday night and Friday. The oil consists of patches and streaks of various sizes and thicknesses, broken up and spread over approximately 20 miles of coast and up to 5 miles offshore. The percent of oil floating on the surface in the slicks is low, estimated to be less than 10 percent in the affected area.

Cleanup measures include skimmers, vacuum trucks, absorbent pads, and absorbent boomShoreline Cleanup and Assessment Technique (SCAT) teams are documenting the level of oil and impacts to the shoreline. 7,777 gallons of an oil and water mixture have been collected from the ocean. Several oiled birds, including pelicans, and an oiled California sea lion were found stranded and are being taken care of by official wildlife rehabilitation teams.

According to the U.S. Coast Guard, a commercial oil spill response company is conducting cleanup operations. Boats are collecting oil offshore. California Department of Fish and Wildlife has ordered beach closures. The U.S. Coast Guard has organized the Incident Management Team and is conducting overflights. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is also responding and is focusing on the site of the pipeline break and inland cleanup.

Spilled oIl flowing next to rocks

Overflight photo shows oil flowing towards the ocean following a pipeline break. (U.S. Coast Guard)

The Office of Response and Restoration’s Jordan Stout is on-scene as the NOAA Scientific Support Coordinator as well as an OR&R overflight observation specialist.  OR&R has been providing information on fate and effects of the crude oil and potential environmental impacts both in the water and on the shore.

In this preassessment phase scientists are researching what natural resources may have been exposed to the oil and whether to proceed with a Natural Resource Damage Assessment. Additional scientists will be deployed to the area in the coming days. Also from NOAA, the National Weather Service, the National Marine Fisheries Service, the Restoration Center, and the Office of National Marine Sanctuaries are providing support.

In 1969, a major oil spill occurred in the Santa Barbara area as a result of a well blowout. One of the largest environmental disasters in U.S. waters at that time, the legacy of that incident includes the creation of the National Environmental Policy Act, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and National Marine Sanctuaries system (which soon encompassed California’s nearby Channel Islands, which were affected by the 1969 Santa Barbara spill).

For further information, see the Joint Information Center website: Refugio Response Information.

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