NOAA's Response and Restoration Blog

An inside look at the science of cleaning up and fixing the mess of marine pollution


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Meet the New CAMEO Chemicals Mobile App

Man in rpotective mask with fire in background.

Used by firefighters and other emergency responders, our hazardous chemicals database, CAMEO Chemicals, is now available as a mobile app. Image credit: U.S. Air Force

The joint NOAA-Environmental Protection Agency hazardous chemicals database is now available as a mobile app.

Named CAMEO Chemicals, the database has information on thousands of chemicals and hazardous substances, including response recommendations and predictions about explosions, toxic fumes, and other hazards. Firefighters and emergency planners around the world use CAMEO Chemicals to help them prepare for and respond to emergencies.

CAMEO Chemicals was already available as a desktop program, website, and mobile-friendly website. You can download the new app to view key chemical and response information on smartphones and tablets. Once downloaded, you can look up chemicals and predict reactivity without an internet connection—making it a valuable tool for emergency responders on the go. With an internet connection, you can access even more resources, like the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards and International Chemical Safety Cards.

Image of smartphones and tablets.

Our hazardous chemicals database, CAMEO Chemicals, is now available as a mobile app. Image credit: NOAA

The app is packed with features, including:

  • Search by name, Chemical Abstracts Service number, or United Nations/North American number to find chemicals of interest in the database of thousands of hazardous substances.
  • Find physical properties, health hazards, air and water hazards, recommendations for firefighting, first aid, and spill response, and regulatory information.
  • Predict potential hazards that could arise if chemicals were to mix.
  • Quickly access additional resources like the U.S. Coast Guard Chemical Hazards Response Information System manual, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Pocket Guide, and International Chemical Safety Cards.
  • Find response information from the Emergency Response Guidebook  and shipping information from the Hazardous Materials Table. Emergency Response Guidebook PDFs are available in English, Spanish, and French.
  • Save and share information with colleagues.

The mobile app is part of the CAMEO® software suite, a set of programs offered at no cost by NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration and EPA’s Office of Emergency Management. This suite of programs was designed to assist emergency planners and responders to anticipate and respond to chemical spills.

You can download the new CAMEO Chemicals app in the Apple App store or Google Play Store.

 

Kristen Faiferlick of NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration contributed to this article.


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Assessing the Impacts from Deepwater Horizon

Beach with grass.

Beach habitat was part of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill settlement. Image Credit: NOAA

The 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster spread spilled oil deep into the ocean’s depths and along the shores of the Gulf of Mexico, compromising the complex ecosystem and local economies. The response and the natural resources damage assessment were the largest in the nation’s history.

Ecosystems are comprised of biological, physical, and chemical components, interconnected to form a community. What happens in one location has serious, cascading effects on organisms in other parts of the ecosystem. The Gulf’s coastal wetlands and estuaries support the entire Gulf ecosystem, providing food, shelter, and nursery grounds for a variety of animals. The open waters of the Gulf also provides habitat for fish, shrimp, shellfish, sea turtles, birds, and mammals.

Evaluating impacts from the spill

Considering these interdependencies during the assessment process was important. At the same time, it was impossible to test or examine every injured bird, every sickened dolphin, or every area contaminated with oil. That was cost prohibitive and scientifically impossible.

Instead, NOAA scientists evaluated representative samples of natural resources, habitats, ecological communities, ecosystem processes and linkages.

To do that, scientists made 20,000 trips to the field, to obtain 100,000 environmental samples that yielded 15 million records. This data collection and subsequent series of scientific studies formed the basis for the natural resources damage assessment that led to the largest civil settlement in federal history.

A short summary of the natural resource injuries:

Marshes injured

  • Plant cover and vegetation mass reduced along 350 to 720 miles of shoreline
  • Amphipods, periwinkles, shrimp, forage fish, red drum, fiddler crabs, insects killed

Harvestable oysters lost

  • 4 – 8.3 billion harvestable oysters lost

Birds, fish, shellfish, sea turtles, and dolphins killed

  • Between 51,000 to 84,000 birds killed
  • Between 56,000 to 166,000 small juvenile sea turtles killed
  • Up to 51% decrease in Barataria Bay dolphin population
  • An estimated 2 – 5 trillion newly hatched fish were killed

Rare corals and red crabs impacted

  • Throughout an area about 400 to 700 square miles around the wellhead

Recreational opportunities lost

  • About $527 – $859 million in lost recreation such as boating, fishing, and beach going
Top fish shows no oil bottom fish shows oil.

The top picture is a red drum control fish that was not exposed to oil, while the bottom red drum fish was exposed to Deepwater Horizon oil for 36 hours. The bottom fish developed excess fluid around the heart and other developmental deformities. This is an example of the many scientific studies conducted for the natural resources damage assessment. Image Credit: NOAA/Abt

What we shared

Those studies not only documented the injuries, but also helped the entire scientific community understand the effects of oil spills on nature and our communities. All of the scientific studies, including over 70 peer-reviewed journal articles, as well as all the data collected for the studies, are available to the public and the scientific community. Additionally, our environmental response management software allows anyone to download the data from a scientific study, and then see that data on a map.

We will be publishing new guidance documents regarding sea turtles and marine mammals by the end of 2017. These guides compile best practices and lessons learned and will expedite natural resources damage assessment procedures in the future.

Read more about Deepwater Horizon and the work of NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration and partners in responding to the spill, documenting the environmental damage, and holding BP accountable for restoring injured resources:

 

Tom Brosnan, Lisa DiPinto, and Kathleen Goggin of NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration contributed to this article.


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Below Zero: Partnership between the Coast Guard and NOAA

Red and white large ship on ocean with ice.

Coast Guard icebreaker Cutter Healy perches next to a shallow melt pond on the ice in the Chukchi Sea, north, of the Arctic Circle July 20, 2016. During Cutter Healy’s first of three missions during their West Arctic Summer Deployment, a team of 46 researchers from the University of Alaska-Anchorage and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) studied the Chukchi Sea ecosystem. U.S. Coast Guard photo by Ensign Brian P. Hagerty/CGC Healy

By Lt. Cmdr. Morgan Roper, U.S. Coast Guard

For more than 200 years, the U.S. Coast Guard and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration have partnered together in maritime resiliency, environmental sustainability and scientific research. In fact, a variety of NOAA projects encompassed over 50 percent of Coast Guard Cutter Healy operations for 2016, including a Coast Guard and NOAA collaborative effort to chart the extended continental shelf and survey marine habitats and biodiversity. Today, more than ever in the past, the Coast Guard and NOAA are working together on numerous levels of profession in the U.S. Arctic Region, which happens to be Coast Guard Alaska‘s northern area of responsibility, or AOR. From daily sector operations and district-led full scale exercises to partnering on the national level in workgroups under the Arctic Council, Coast Guard and NOAA have a strong working relationship supporting and representing the U.S. in cold weather operations and Arctic initiatives.

In a recent search and rescue case off the coast of the Pribilof Islands, where the fishing vessel Destination sank suddenly in the frigid seas, NOAA’s National Weather Service (NWS) Regional Operations Center was the Coast Guard’s ‘first call’ to get current weather information in support of search plan development. NOAA and NWS also played a role in setting the stage for the potential cause of the incident by providing sea state information and the dangerous effects of sea spray icing on vessels. For SAR planning and other mission support, NOAA’s NWS Ice Program also works with the Port of Anchorage on a daily basis with regards to ice conditions all along the coastline of Alaska, and provides bi-weekly regional weather briefs for the district and sector command centers; they are part of the ‘team’ when it comes to response planning and preparation. NOAA and the Coast Guard continue to work diligently together to ensure all possible capabilities from the U.S. Government enterprise are available to support homeland security and Arctic domain awareness on a broader, high level position.

On a national level, personnel from Coast Guard and NOAA headquarters partner together as members of the Arctic Council’s Emergency Prevention Preparedness and Response  working group. This group addresses various aspects of prevention, preparedness and response to environmental emergencies in the Arctic. The Coast Guard and NOAA jointly play a large role in ensuring operational support and training mechanisms are in place for vital response capacities and capabilities.

Man on ship deck launching mini aircraft.

National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration scientist Kevin Vollbrecht launches a Puma unmanned aerial vehicle from the bow of the Coast Guard Cutter Healy July 11, 2015. The Puma is being tested for flight and search and rescue capabilities. (U.S. Coast Guard photo)

The Coast Guard also fully employs the use of NOAA’s Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA) in the Arctic. ERMA is NOAA’s online mapping tool that integrates both static and real-time data, such as ship locations, weather, and ocean currents, in a common operational picture for environmental responders and decision makers to use during incidents. Also used for full scale exercises, in 2016, the Healy employed ERMA onboard to help provide a centralized display of response assets, weather data and other environmental conditions for the incident response coordinators. In the same exercise, NOAA tested unmanned aerial systems for use with Coast Guard operations in the Arctic. Furthermore, NOAA and the Coast Guard are working together with indigenous communities to learn how ERMA can best be used to protect the natural resources and unique lifestyle of the region. ERMA has been in use by the Coast Guard in other major response events, such as Deepwater Horizon; where it was the primary tool providing Coast Guard and other support agency leadership a real-time picture of on-scene environmental information.

Among a number of future projects, the Coast Guard and NOAA are developing a focused approach on how to best handle the damage of wildlife in the areas of subsistence living in the northern Arctic region of Alaska during and following a spill event. The Coast Guard and NOAA are also collaborating on how to better integrate environmental information and intelligence to proactively support Arctic marine traffic safety as a whole.

The partnership between Coast Guard and NOAA continues to thrive and grow stronger as maritime and environmental conditions, caused by both natural and man-made effects, shift and change over time.

 

This story was first posted Feb. 17, 2017, on Coast Guard Compass, official blog of the U.S. Coast Guard as part of  a series about all things cold weather – USCG missions, operations, and safety guidance. Follow the Coast Guard on FacebookTwitter and Instagram, and look for more #belowzero stories, images, and tips!


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Using Big Data to Share Scientific Knowledge

Green sea turtle hatchling making tracks in the sand.

Data management tools like NOAA’s DIVER help turn lots of disparate sets of data into insight about the nature and location of the greatest threats to marine wildlife. (NOAA)

By Ben Shorr

Big data.

The term has been a buzzword in the media and data management circles for years now, but what does it mean and how does it relate to modern science?

In general, big data is defined as extremely large data sets that cannot be easily analyzed using traditional database methods. In today’s data-driven economy, business and media companies have embraced big data as a way to analyze how to better serve their customers.

Scientists look at big data from a different perspective. New tools and techniques have improved how we manage and share datasets, and also how we store, process and analyze scientific data. Having to manage and analyze large amounts of data is not new to science: Collecting and analyzing information is the foundation of scientific inquiry. What has changed is the sheer volume of digitized data available to scientists, distributed storage environments (i.e., the Cloud), and the challenge of how to integrate and broadcast those data.

In the past, scientists often distributed data by presenting at conferences or publishing in peer-reviewed scientific journals. That meant good science was collected in binders and placed on bookshelves in a physical location. In addition, scientists were not always so forthcoming in sharing data because of the real fear of getting scooped, but the culture is changing — and scientists are seeing benefits of sharing data earlier to both the science community and the public.

These are a few of the challenges encountered in trying to address the unprecedented magnitude and complexity of data collected and available for environmental spill response and restoration.

Integrating environmental data 

The real world experience with legacy data management systems and building new data management systems to work with those existing programs, has informed our entire approach to managing environmental data, and is a key part of our approach to current and future data management.

For years, NOAA and ocean advocates have been talking about a concept known as “ecosystem-based management” for marine species and habitats. Put simply, ecosystem-based management is a way to find out what happens to the larger tapestry design and function when one thread is pulled from the cloth.

We were able to leverage “big data” techniques and develop a data warehouse and information portal built with open source tools for ingesting, integrating and organizing information. This tool, called the Data Integration Visualization, Exploration and Reporting (DIVER) application, allows scientific teams from different organizations to upload their field data and other key information related to their studies, such as scanned field notes, electronic data sheets, scanned images, photographs, and to filter and download results.

For instance, the large quantity and multitude of sources for the data collected from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill results in datasets of different types and structures. DIVER addresses this challenge by integrating standardized data and allowing users to query across multiple datasets simultaneously.

 

Map view of DIVER software map showing where tagged dolphins swam in the Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

A map view of DIVER shows where tagged dolphins traveled along the Gulf Coast, showing two populations that stayed in their home bases of Barataria Bay and Mississippi Sound. (NOAA)

 

To facilitate this process, the DIVER team developed common data models, which provides a consistent and standardized structure for managing and exchanging information. DIVER was developed to support data generated in the DWH oil spill response and assessment efforts. DIVER data models and a data warehouse approach have expanded to serve the entire coastal and Great Lakes of the United States. The common data model concept is based upon creating data schemas, which serve as blueprints to organize and standardize information.

Powerful tools for protecting marine habitats

Data integration systems like DIVER put all of that information in one place at one time, allowing users to look for causes and effects that they might not have ever known were there and then use that information to better manage species recovery. These data give us a new kind of power for protecting marine species.

Systems like DIVER are set up to take advantage of quantum leaps in computing power and tools that were not available to the field of environmental conservation 10 years ago. These advances give DIVER the ability to accept reams of diverse and seemingly unrelated pieces of information and, over time, turn them into insight about the nature and location of the greatest threats to marine wildlife.

 

Ultimately, all the advancement in data sharing benefits not only the science and academic communities but also the public.

Ben Shorr has been a physical scientist with the Office of Response and Restoration since he came to Seattle (mostly to ski and sail) in 2000. Ben works on a range of topics, from cleanup, damage assessment, and restoration to visualization and spatial analysis. In his spare time, Ben enjoys hanging out with his kids, which means riding bikes, skiing, and sailing too!


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Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill Data: New Monitoring Updates

Man on ship with machine about to drop into ocean.

Scientists from Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium deploy a water sensor called a CTD sonde rosette to collect water samples to test for oxygen levels during the 2015 R/V Pelican’s shelf wide hypoxia cruise. (LUMCON)

By  Alexis Baldera 

The 2010 Deepwater oil disaster in the Gulf of Mexico revealed a challenge with the way scientific monitoring information is shared and stored.

At the time, the scientific records of monitoring efforts in the Gulf of Mexico were dispersed across many entities from universities, natural resource management agencies, private industries to non-governmental organizations. In most cases monitoring systems were developed independently, often narrowed to specific questions, such as how many oysters should be harvested and how many should be left in the water?

Monitoring systems are rarely coordinated across states and other agencies, and the scattered nature of these information systems makes it difficult for any one group of scientists or organizations to find and access the full expanse of data available.

To help address this issue Ocean Conservancy produced the 2015 report Charting the Gulf: Analyzing the Gaps in Long-term Monitoring of the Gulf of Mexico. The report compiles an extended inventory of nearly 700 past and existing long-term monitoring efforts in the Gulf. Ocean Conservancy’s goal was to provide scientists, academics, and restoration decision-makers with a cohesive inventory that could save time and money when planning monitoring for restoration projects or programs.

Recently, NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration, charged with supporting science information needs during oil spills, began hosting Ocean Conservancy’s inventory of monitoring programs through NOAA’s map-based Gulf of Mexico Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA). Combining this monitoring data with ERMA is a great step towards creating sustained visibility of existing data sources in the Gulf.

“Ocean Conservancy’s gap analysis of long-term monitoring programs in the Gulf of Mexico will serve as a valuable resource for the NRDA Trustees as they plan, implement, and monitor restoration progress in the Gulf of Mexico over the next 25 years,” said Melissa Carle, NOAA Monitoring and Adaptive Management Coordinator, Deepwater Horizon Restoration Program.

The new gap analysis dataset in ERMA will allow trustees to visualize the footprint of existing monitoring programs, assisting in the identification and prioritization of gaps that impact planning restoration actions and evaluate restoration progress for the habitats and resources injured by the spill.

Graphic of coastline and the Gulf Of Mexico.

Ocean Conservancy’s gap analysis dataset in ERMA. (NOAA)

Alexis Baldera is the Staff Restoration Scientist for Ocean Conservancy Gulf Restoration Program.


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Tools and Products: 40 Years of Spill Technology

 

A bright orange Saildrone floats in front of a NOAA ship in the Bering Sea

NOAA has deployed the Saildrone to study fisheries in the Bering Sea. (NOAA)

Earlier stories have described the Argo Merchant oil spill as the catalyst for the creation of the Office of Response and Restoration (OR&R). Its ongoing partnership with the United States Coast Guard (USCG) and other agencies has expanded from scientific support to include the latest developments in spill response technology.

Over the years, OR&R has continued to provide scientific support to the Coast Guard when it responds to oil or chemical spills. On its own, or in partnership with other agencies, OR&R provides software, guidance documents, and training on the scientific aspects of oil and chemical spill response. In addition, OR&R is constantly refining techniques, tools, and training in spill response.

Expanding OR&R’s Tools and Products

Modeling marine spills: After the Argo Merchant spill, standard methods for assessing marine spills were established, and a series of trajectory and fate modeling programs were created.

In 1979, the On-Scene Spill Model (OSSM) was developed to predict the possible route, or trajectory, a pollutant might follow in, or on, water. In 1999, OSSM became GNOME, General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment program.

The GNOME Online Oceanographic Data Server (GOODS), helps GNOME users access the base maps, ocean currents, and winds needed to run trajectories in their own regions. In addition, OR&R is nearing completion of a multi-year project to produce the next generation of GNOME, which will include integration of ADIOS, a program modeling how different types of oil weather (undergo physical and chemical changes) in the marine environment.

Mapping sensitive shorelines and species: In 1979 the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps were created after the Ixtoc 1 exploratory oil well blowout. ESI provides information about coastal shoreline sensitivity, biological species and habitats, and human-use resources. The maps allow spill responders to quickly identify resources at risk before and during an oil spill, in order to establish cleanup methods and priorities.

Providing a Common Operational Picture (COP): Developed after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010, the online mapping tool ERMA® soon became the COP for the Deepwater Horizon response as well as other spills. ERMA integrates both static and real-time data, such as ESI maps, ship locations, weather, and ocean currents, in a centralized, easy-to-use format for environmental responders and decision makers.

ERMA is designed to:

Learn more about the ever-evolving tools and techniques that OR&R uses to respond to environmental spills.

Looking to the Future

Drone technologies to assess shorelines: OR&R is exploring emerging technologies such as drones, or Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs), for shoreline assessment during spills and exercises, particularly when the shoreline is steep or inaccessible. The UAS imagery can be quickly displayed in the COP for response during a spill, and for a Natural Resource Damage Assessment.

Recently, OR&R teamed up with the California Office of Spill Prevention and Response, USCG, and Chevron Corporation to explore the utility of drones as a reconnaissance tool for shoreline oiling. During an oil spill, the nature and extent of shoreline oiling are usually determined by ground-based surveys using the Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Technique (SCAT). In situations when shorelines cannot be safely accessed or when they include sensitive habitats like marshes, SCAT may be limited to conducting helicopter-based and/or ground-based binocular surveys, or no surveys at all. Emerging technologies like drones may become important elements in future SCAT survey efforts.

This is the fourth in a series of six stories examining the oil spill in 1976 of tanker Argo Merchant that resulted in the creation of the Office of Response and Restoration.


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Updated Environmental Sensitivity Index Maps and Data for Some Atlantic States

Colored map of grid and ocean.

A section of ESI map for the New York/New Jersey area. (NOAA)

One of the challenges in any oil spill is the ability for spill responders to quickly evaluate protection priorities appropriate to the shoreline, habitats, and wildlife found in the area of the spill. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps and data developed by NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration (OR&R) provide spill responders with a concise summary of coastal resources that are at risk if an oil spill occurs nearby. Additionally, ESI maps can be used by planners—before a spill happens—to identify vulnerable locations, establish protection priorities, and identify cleanup strategies.

OR&R and its partners have recently updated much of the Atlantic Coast ESI data, and Geographic Information System (GIS) data are now available for these states and regions:

  • Maine and New Hampshire
  • Long Island Sound
  • New York/New Jersey Metro area, including the Hudson River and South Long Island
  • Chesapeake Bay, including Maryland and Virginia outer coasts
  • North Carolina
  • South Carolina
  • Georgia

Maps in Portable Document Format (PDF) are currently available for South Carolina, Long Island Sound, Georgia, and the New York/New Jersey region. PDFs for the other regions listed will be coming soon, as well as PDF maps for the Washington/Oregon Outer Coast data published in late 2014. GIS data for Massachusetts/Rhode Island are currently under review and will be available soon.

More Information about OR&R’s ESI Mapping Work

Redrawing the Coast After Sandy: First Round of Updated Environmental Sensitivity Data Released for Atlantic States