NOAA's Response and Restoration Blog

An inside look at the science of cleaning up and fixing the mess of marine pollution


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Incident Responses for May 2017

Gray whale rising from the ocean. Image credit: NOAA.

Gray whales are found mainly in shallow coastal waters in the North Pacific Ocean. Image credit: NOAA

Every month our Emergency Response Division provides scientific expertise and services to the U.S. Coast Guard on everything from running oil spill trajectories to model where the spill may spread, to possible effects on wildlife and fisheries, and estimates on how long the oil may stay in the environment.

In May, there were two incidents of dead gray whales in Washington state, one floating offshore near Long Beach, and another washed ashore in Bellingham Bay. In both cases, we were asked for trajectories.

In the case of a whale found floating at sea, we use our GNOME trajectory modeling software to map the possible drift route of the carcass. When a whale washes ashore, one of the things that officials need to know is how far they have to tow the carcass back out to sea to ensure it will not wash back to shore.

Our Incident News website has information on oil spills and other incidents where we provided scientific support.

Here are some of this month’s responses:

 


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NOAA Open House 2017

Aerial ob buildings along lake shore.

NOAA’s Western Regional Center is in Seattle on Lake Washington, adjacent to Seattle’s Warren G. Magnuson Park. Image credit: NOAA

Explore your world and learn more about how NOAA works to understand and predict changes in Earth’s environment to help protect people and property and to conserve and manage coastal and marine resources. Join us at the Western Regional Center in Seattle, Washington for a series of free activities, including engaging science presentations and panels, interactive exhibits and tours. This event is perfect for the whole family.  (Adults – please remember to bring our photo IDs to gain access to the campus).

NOAA Open House is a FREE event, open to the public, with no reservations required.

Date: Friday, June 9, 2017

Time: 12 pm – 6:30 pm

Location: NOAA Western Regional Center
7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, WA 98115

You will have the opportunity to learn more about a variety of NOAA programs, including the National Weather ServicePacific Marine Environmental LaboratoryNOAA Fisheries ServiceNational Ocean ServiceNOAA Corps, and more!

Tours:

Tours will be filled on a first come, first serve basis. Check back soon for tour times. Sign-ups will be available at the registration table. Guided tours include:

WEATHER – Take a tour of NOAA’s National Weather Service Seattle office forecast center and learn how meteorologists work 24/7 to forecast the Seattle area weather from the waters of Puget Sound to the Cascade Mountains and everything in between. Tour is 30 minutes in length.

OCEAN ENGINEERING – Step into NOAA’s engineering workspace where engineers are hard at work building and testing new technology to collect data from our oceans.  See the evolution of tsunami sensing moorings and new innovative technologies used to study the ocean. Tour is 30 minutes in length.

DIVING – Take a tour of NOAA’s Diving Center and take a (simulated) dive into the 30 foot deep training tower and hyperbaric recompression chamber. Get hands out experience with SCUBA diving equipment and learn how NOAA divers conduct research underwater. Tour is 45 minutes in length.

MARINE MAMMALS – This tour includes rare access to the NOAA marine mammal research bone collection that includes orca skulls and a narwhal tusk! Tour is 30 minutes in length.

SUSTAINABLE FISHERIES – Take a tour of NOAA Fisheries Net Loft where you will see how NOAA manages fisheries that produce sustainable seafood. Tour is 30 minutes in length.

Please visit the Facebook event invitation for more information.

Questions? Contact the NOAA Open House coordinators


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Pumpout Program Protects Puget Sound from Raw Sewage

Seattle skyline on Lake Washington. Image credit: NOAA.

In 2016, Washington Sea Grant’s pumout program diverted a record 10 million gallons of raw sewage from Puget Sound, Lake Washington, and other state waterway. Image credit: NOAA

By MaryAnn Wagner of Washington Sea Grant

In 2016, Washington Sea GrantWashington State Parks, and  U.S. Fish & Wildlife worked together to divert a record 10 million gallons of raw sewage from Puget Sound, Lake Washington, and other state waterways. Sewage that otherwise would have been dumped into vulnerable waters.

Instead, the sewage was collected for safe onshore treatment, a result of training and outreach funded by U.S. Fish & Wildlife for the Pumpout Washington program, a branch of the Clean Vessel Act that provides outreach and education to boaters.

This summer, the Pumpout team hopes to expand services to waterways that are more remote. Based on needs identified in boater surveys, services will soon reach the San Juan Islands, particularly near Sucia Island.

Washington Sea Grant redesigned a spill-free pumpout adaptor kit to make it easier for boaters to use the pumpout facilities without making a mess. Throughout 2016, 1,000 free adaptor kits were distributed at 50 marinas and raised awareness of best practices among Washington boaters at boat shows, festivals, yacht clubs and through a partnership with the Coast Guard Auxiliary.

“In Washington State, awareness of the Clean Vessel Act program and pumpout services is way up. The reaction from boaters has been so successful that we are breaking all records,” said Al Wolslegel, Clean Vessel Program manager.

Man pumping out waste from boat. Image credit Washington Sea Grant.

Terry Durfee providing a free pumpout service to a boater on Lake Washington. Image credit: Washington Sea Grant

For more information about the program, including a Google map showing pumpout station locations in Washington State, visit pumpoutwashington.org.

The Washington Clean Vessel Act program is part of the Clean Vessel Act of 1992 and in Washington it is managed by Washington State Parks and supported by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Sportfish Restoration Fund from special taxes on recreational boats, fishing gear and boat fuel. The kits and training are made available to yacht clubs or other organizations that would like adaptor kits for members. Contact Aaron Barnett at 206-616-8929 or aaronb5@uw.edu for more information. Lake Washington boaters may schedule pumpouts through terryandsonsmobilepumpout.com, 206-437-6764.

MaryAnn Wagner is Assistant Director for Communications with Washington Sea Grant. Washington Sea Grant, based at the University of Washington, provides statewide marine research, outreach and education services. The National Sea Grant College Program is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) U.S. Department of Commerce. Visit wsg.washington.edu for more information.


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Counting People on the Beach is Not as Simple as it Sounds

Aerial view of people on beach. Image credit: NOAA.

In the aftermath of an oil spill, state and federal natural resource trustees often need to assess impacts to recreational use. This new manual focuses on onsite data collection using ground personnel and aerial photography. Image credit: NOAA

Imagine the perfect day at the beach, lying in the sand, fishing from the pier, maybe taking a boat out on the water. Then an oil spill occurs, and the beach is no longer a fun place to be.

When an oil spill or other pollutant keeps people from enjoying a natural area, it’s up to agencies like NOAA, acting as public trustees of affected areas, to determine how much recreational opportunities were lost. It’s part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment process.

A new guide from the Assessment and Restoration Division, Best Practices for Collecting Onsite Data to Assess Recreational Use Impacts from an Oil Spill, is designed to help standardize the collection process.

The guide evolved from our experiences conducting the natural resource damage assessment for the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

“We wanted to capitalize on the lessons learned during the Deepwater Horizon damage assessment, so we condensed our 1,119 page infield process manual into a portable guide that we could pull off the shelf and implement during any future oil spill,” said Adam Domanski, an economist who specializes in non-market valuation with the Assessment and Restoration Division.

The intention of the new guide is help any resource manager collect recreational use data and offers detailed information on:

  • Sampling Methods and Design
  • Onsite Data Collection Using Ground Personnel
  • Onsite Data Collection Using Aerial Photography
  • Safety Considerations for Data Collection
  • Data Entry and Processing Procedures

The guide is available at NOAA’s Damage, Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program.


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NOAA Corps: 100 Years of Service

NOAA Ship rainer on ocean. Image credit: NOAA.

NOAA Ship Rainier is a hydrographic survey vessel that maps the ocean to aid maritime commerce, improve coastal resilience, and understand the marine environment. Rainier’s officers, technicians, and scientists log the data that NOAA cartographers use to create and update the nation’s nautical charts with ever-increasing data richness and precision. Image credit: NOAA.

By Ensign Matthew Bissell, NOAA Corps

Can you name the seven uniformed services of the United States?

Most likely, you can name five—Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, and Coast Guard. You may even get to six if you know that the U.S Public Health Service has a uniformed division.

What is that seventh uniformed service?

Don’t feel bad if you can’t come up with it, you are not alone, even some members of the  military haven’t heard of the NOAA Corps, despite the service approaching its 100-year anniversary.

I experienced the Corps’ low profile first hand when I showed up for my physical screening at the military’s processing station in Los Angeles, California. I was denied entry because the security guard didn’t believe the NOAA Corps was a uniformed service. I only gained entry after proving its existence by pulling up a Wikipedia entry on my phone.

My NOAA Corps affiliation didn’t get me much further once inside.  All the other recruits received nametags that read Air Force, Coast Guard, or Marines, mine read XXX. I got more than a few questions about my Xs that day and my responses varied greatly—some more creative than others.

At that early stage in my NOAA Corps career, even I was largely unaware of the rich history and incredibly valuable service I was to become part of.

The Civil War to World War I

NOAA Corps officially began on May 22, 1917 (46 days after the nation entered World War I). To understand the origins of NOAA, and its commissioned Corps, we need to go even further back in history, to 1807 when President Thomas Jefferson signed a bill initiating the first survey of the nation’s coast. The result was the formation of the U.S. Survey of the Coast, later named the U.S. Coast Survey—the nation’s oldest scientific federal agency.

Initially consisting of civilian surveyors, cartographers, and engineers, as well as commissioned officers from the Army and Navy, the agency charted the nation’s waterways.

Once the Civil War erupted in 1861 the Army and Navy officers in the Coast Survey were recalled to their respective services. The survey’s remaining civilians volunteered their skills in support of the Union, serving in both the Army and Navy. In addition to providing valuable mapping and charting services to the Union forces, these civilian surveyors participated in naval blockades and other major offensive actions.

Army commands gave Coast Surveyors military rank while the Navy refused, leaving some coast surveyors in jeopardy of being hung as spies if captured.

When the war ended, the civilian surveyors and Naval officers returned to their charting mission. The scope of this work had now expanded to include a survey of the nation’s interior. In 1878 the U.S. Coast Survey was renamed the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey to reflect this new responsibility.

Naval officers were again withdrawn for the Spanish-American War, never to return to the survey. For the next two decades, civilians were in command of the survey ships.

Then in 1915, Ernest Lester Jones, referred to as the father of the NOAA Corps, became director of the organization. With the nation’s involvement in World War I looming, one of Jones’s first actions as director was to publish the coast survey’s contributions to the Civil War. A step that eventually led to establishing the organization as a commissioned service.

Historical photo of old ship. Image credit: NOAA.

Coast and Geodetic Survey Ship SURVEYOR off Norfolk, Virginia, in 1919, showing Star and Chevron on stack for having taken part in WWI combat operations in the North Atlantic. Image credit: NOAA Photo Library.

NOAA Corps is born

In May 1917, a law established the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey as a commissioned, uniformed service allowing integration into other uniformed services and removing the threat of spying accusations if captured in the line of duty.

When we entered World War I, many survey officers assumed vital roles within the Army, Navy, and Marine Corps. This integration into other services repeated during World War II.

After each wartime involvement, survey officers resumed their peacetime duties of surveying the nation’s coasts. These duties evolved to include worldwide oceanographic cruises, arctic expeditions, and national defense projects.

In 1970, a national scientific agency merger created the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the survey became NOAA Corps.

The Corps today

Throughout the last 100 years, NOAA Corps officers have continued the important work of surveying the nation’s waterways and ensuring safe and open navigation for maritime commerce.

In addition to surveying, NOAA Corp officers serve as operational specialists aboard the nation’s research ships and airplanes, as well as in land-based positions within NOAA’s other divisions. Typically, a NOAA Corp officer will rotate between two-year sea assignments and three-year land based assignments throughout their careers.

After my initial experience in Los Angeles, I started a 16-week Basic Officer Training Course at the Coast Guard academy in Connecticut, along with 15 other NOAA Corps candidates. After graduation, my first assignment was aboard NOAA’s hydrographic survey vessel, Rainier. I spent two years on Rainier surveying coastal Alaska, updating nautical charts originally created by our NOAA Corps ancestors over one hundred years ago.

Technology has advanced our ability to map the sea floor since those early efforts. Still, it’s absolutely jaw-dropping how accurate the old charts are, given the limited technology of the time.

After two years at sea, I am now serving in the Office of Response and Restoration’s Emergency Response Division, continuing a proud NOAA Corps history of serving our nation through science.

 

Ensign Matt Bissell came to NOAA from the Ocean Institute in Southern California where he was a science educator and floating lab technician. Bissell has a Master of Science degree in Geographic Information Science and Technology and a Bachelor of Science degree in Earth System Science. Bissell now resides in Seattle with his wife and one-year-old daughter. Special thanks to Albert “Skip” Theberge, at the NOAA Central Library for help with this article.


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What we do to Help Endangered Species

Two killer whales (orcas) breach in front a boat. Image credit: NOAA

NOAA developed an oil spill response plan for killer whales that includes three main techniques to deploy quickly to keep these endangered animals away from a spill. Image credit: NOAA

For over 40 years, the 1973 Endangered Species Act has helped protect native plants and animals and that habitats where they live, and many government agencies play a role in that important work. That’s one reason the United States celebrates Endangered Species Day every year in May.

The Office of Response and Restoration contributes to the efforts to protect these species in our spill response and assessment and restoration work.

When a spill occurs in coastal waters one priority for our emergency responders is identifying any threatened or endangered species living in the area near the spill.

  • At every spill or chemical release, our scientists need to take into account:
  • Is it breeding season for any protected species in the area?
  • Is any of the spill area nesting grounds for protected species?
  • Are protected species likely to come into contact with the spilled contaminant?
  • What are possible negative effects from the cleanup process on the protected species?

We assist the U.S. Coast Guard with a required Endangered Species Act consultation for spills to ensure those species are considered in any response action taken. We’ve also developed tools that can be used by all emergency responders and environmental resource managers to help protected endangered plants, animals, and their habitats.

Environmental Sensitivity Index maps identify coastal habitats and locations that may be especially vulnerable to an oil spills. ​The main components of these maps are sensitive wildlife, shoreline habitats, and the economic resources people use there, such as a fishery or recreational beach.

Threatened and​ Endangered Species Geodatabases allows oil spill planners and responders to easily access data on federal or state listed threatened and endangered species for specific regions. These data are a subset of the larger, more complex environmental sensitivity index data and are a convenient way to access some of the more critical biological information for an area.

Environmental Resources Management Application, called ERMA®, is our online mapping tool that integrates static and real-time environmental data and allows users to investigate data in their area. There are hundreds of publicly available base layers including many endangered and threatened species. Environmental Sensitivity Index maps are available in this tool.

Marine debris affects endangered and threatened species including species of sea turtles, whales, seals, and corals. These fragile populations face a variety of stressors in the ocean including people, derelict fishing gear, trash, and other debris. To learn more about the dangers of marine debris on marine life check out this blog post or visit the NOAA Marine Debris Program website.

For more information on threatened and endangered species, and local events for Endangered Species Day, visit the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. For information on endangered and threatened marine species visit NOAA Fisheries.


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Safe Boating and Prevention of Small Oil Spills

Marina with recreational boats. Image credit: NOAA.

Recreational boaters and other small vessel operators can help protect marine life with a few simple precautions aimed at preventing oil from getting into the water. Image credit: NOAA

What does wearing a life jacket have in common with preventing oil spills? Wearing life jackets can save people’s lives; preventing small oil spills helps protect marine life.

National Safe Boating Week is May 22-26. As part of the campaign launch, the National Safe Boating Council, in partnership with the U.S. Coast Guard, is encouraging people to wear life jackets to work on May 19. The Coast Guard estimates that over 80 percent of the lives lost to drowning could have been preventing by wearing life jackets.

In addition to protecting themselves and their passengers, recreational boaters and other small vessel operators can help protect marine life with a few simple precautions aimed at preventing oil from getting into the water.

Though each one is small in volume, oil spills from small vessels add up. In Washington State, when you multiply this volume by the thousands of fishing and recreational boats on the water, they make up the largest source of oil pollution in Puget Sound, according to Washington Sea Grant.

“Small oils spills, whether a cup, a gallon or just a few drops, add up to a huge water quality problem; it is death by a thousand tiny cuts. Over time, it all adds up,” said Aaron Barnett, boating specialist at Washington Sea Grant.

Small Spills Prevention Checklist

It’s not difficult to prevent small-vessel oil spills, Washington Sea Grant has put together a checklist for simple maintenance and fueling tips.

Vessel maintenance

  • Tighten bolts on your engine to prevent oil leaks. Bolts can shake loose with engine use.
  • Replace cracked or worn hydraulic lines and fittings before they fail. Lines can wear out from sun and heat exposure or abrasion.
  • Outfit your engine with an oil tray or drip pan. You don’t need anything fancy or expensive; a cookie sheet or paint tray will do the trick.
  • Create your own bilge sock out of oil absorbent pads to prevent oily water discharge. Here’s a helpful how-to guide from Coast Guard Auxiliary Instructor Mike Brough.

At the pump

  • Avoid overflows while refueling by knowing the capacity of your tank and leaving some room for fuel expansion.
  • Shut off your bilge pump while refueling – don’t forget to turn it back on when done.
  • Use an absorbent pad or a fuel collar to catch drips. Always keep a stash handy.

Even following these tips, accidents can still happen. When they do it’s important that boaters manage them effectively. Spills should immediately be contained and cleaned up with absorbent pads or boomed to prevent their spread. Notify the Coast Guard and your state spill response office, per federal law, and let the marina or fuel dock staff know about the incident, so they can assist.

To report an oil spill call the U.S. Coast Guard National Response Center 800-424-8802.