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Who Thinks Crude Oil Is Delicious? These Ocean Microbes Do

This is a post by Dalina Thrift-Viveros, a chemist with NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration.

Edge of oil slick at ocean surface.

There are at least seven species of ocean bacteria that can survive by eating oil and nothing else. However, usually only a small number of oil-eating bacteria live in any given part of the ocean, and it takes a few days for their population to increase to take advantage of their abundant new food source during an oil spill. (NOAA)

Would you look at crude oil and think, “Mmm, tasty…”? Probably not.

But if you were a microbe living in the ocean you might have a different answer. There are species of marine bacteria in several families, including Marinobacter, Oceanospiralles, Pseudomonas, and Alkanivorax, that can eat compounds from petroleum as part of their diet. In fact, there are at least seven species of bacteria that can survive solely on oil [1].

These bacteria are nature’s way of removing oil that ends up in the ocean, whether the oil is there because of oil spills or natural oil seeps. Those of us in the oil spill response community call this biological process of removing oil “biodegradation.”

What Whets Their Oily Appetites?

Communities of oil-eating bacteria are naturally present throughout the world’s oceans, in places as different as the warm waters of the Persian Gulf [2] and the Arctic conditions of the Chukchi Sea north of Alaska [3].

Each community of bacteria is specially adapted for the environment where it is living, and studies have found that bacteria consume oil most quickly when they are kept in conditions similar to their natural environments [4]. So that means that if you took Arctic bacteria and brought them to an oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, they would not eat the oil as quickly as the bacteria that are already living in the Gulf. You would get the same result in the reverse case, with the Arctic bacteria beating out the Gulf bacteria at an oil spill in Alaska.

Other factors that affect how quickly bacteria degrade oil include the amount of oxygen and nutrients in the water, the temperature of the water, the surface area of the oil, and the kind of oil that they are eating [4][5][6]. That means the bacteria that live in a given area will consume the oil from a spill in the summer more quickly than a spill in the winter, and will eat light petroleum products such as gasoline or diesel much more quickly than heavy petroleum products like fuel oil or heavy crude oil.

Oil-eating microbes fluorescing in a petri dish.

This bacteria, fluorescing under ultraviolet light in a petri dish, is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It has been used during oil spills to break down the components of oil. (Credit: Wikimedia user Sun14916/Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported license)

Asphalt, the very heaviest component of crude oil, is actually so difficult for bacteria to eat that we can use it to pave our roads without worrying about the road rotting away.

What About During Oil Spills?

People are often interested in the possibility of using bacteria to help clean up oil spills, and most oil left in the ocean long enough is consumed by bacteria.

However, most oil spills last only a few days, and during that time other natural “weathering” processes, such as evaporation and wave-induced breakup of the oil, have a much bigger effect on the appearance and location of the oil than bacteria do. This is because there are usually only a small number of oil-eating bacteria in any given part of the ocean, and it takes a few days for their population to increase to take advantage of their abundant new food source.

Because of this lag time, biodegradation was not originally included in NOAA’s oil weathering software ADIOS. ADIOS is a computer model designed to help oil spill responders by predicting how much of the oil will stay in the ocean during the first five days of a spill.

However, oil spills like the 2010 Deepwater Horizon well blowout, which released oil for about three months, demonstrate that there is a need for a model that can tell us what would happen to the oil over longer periods of time. My team in the Emergency Response Division at NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration has recognized that. As a result, version 3 of ADIOS, due to be released later in 2015, will take into account biodegradation.

My team and I used data published in scientific journals on the speed of oil biodegradation under different conditions to develop an equation that can predict how fast the components of oil will be consumed, and how the speed of this process can change based on the surface area-to-mass ratio of the oil and the climate it is in. A report describing the technical details of the model will be published in the upcoming Proceedings of the Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program Technical Seminar, which will be released after the June conference.

Including oil biodegradation in our ADIOS software will provide oil spill responders with an even better tool to help them make decisions about their options during a response. As part of the team working on this project, it has provided me with a much greater appreciation for the important role that oil-eating bacteria play in the long-term effort to keep our oceans free of oil.

I know I’m certainly glad they think oil is delicious.

Dalina Thrift-ViverosDalina Thrift-Viveros is a Seattle-based chemist who has been providing chemistry expertise for Emergency Response Division software projects and spill responders since 2011, when she first started working with NOAA and Genwest. When she is not involved in chemistry-related activities, Dalina sings with the rock band Whiskey River and plays sax with her jazz group, The Paul Engstrom Trio.

Literature cited

[1] Yakimov, M.M., K.N. Timmis, and P.N. Golyshin. “Obligate oil-degrading marine bacteria,” Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 2007, 18(3), pp. 257-266.

[2] Hassanshahian, M., G. Emtiazi, and S.Cappello. “Isolation and characterization of crude-oil-degrading bacteria from the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea,” Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2012, 64, pp. 7–12.

[3] McFarlin, K.M., R.C. Prince, R. Perkins, and M.B. Leigh. “Biodegradation of Dispersed Oil in Arctic Seawater at -1°C,” PLoS ONE, 2014, 9:e84297, pp. 1-8.

[4] Atlas, R.M. “Petroleum Biodegradation and Oil Spill Bioremediation,” Marine Pollution Bulletin, 1995, 31, pp. 178-182.

[5] Atlas, R.M. and T.C. Hazen. “Oil Biodegradation and Bioremediation: A Tale of the Two Worst Spills in U.S. History,” Environmental Science & Technology, 2011, 45, pp. 6709-6715.

[6] Head, I.M., D.M. Jones, and W.F.M. Röling, “Marine microorganisms make a meal of oil,” Nature Reviews Microbiology, 2006, 4, pp. 173-182.


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On the Front Lines of an Oil Spill in My Own Backyard: A Report from Santa Barbara, California

This is a post by Gabrielle Dorr, NOAA/Montrose Settlements Restoration Program Outreach Coordinator.

Oiled boulders on a California beach with cleanup workers in the distance.

NOAA has been involved with the May 19, 2015 oil spill resulting from a pipeline break at Refugio State Beach, near Santa Barbara, California, which released an estimated 100,000 gallons of crude oil, with a reported 21,000 gallons reaching the ocean. (Bill Stanley/U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service)

When I first heard about the pipeline oil spill at Refugio State Beach near Santa Barbara, California, a couple weeks ago, I felt concerned about the fact that it was only a few hours up the coast from where I currently live and work. I couldn’t stop thinking about what the long-term impacts would be to the beautiful beaches we have here in southern California.

As a NOAA communications specialist who had cut her teeth in providing communications support for the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, I thought I knew roughly what to expect when I was called in to help in Santa Barbara.

When I was asked to provide support for that oil spill in July 2010, oil had been gushing into the ocean for several months and was washing up on beaches bordering five states far from my home in California. I was able to get out into the field in Louisiana to see firsthand what an oiled marsh looks like, but that was months after the spill began. In addition, the massive scale of the response and damage assessment efforts made it tough to grasp the full picture of the spill.

Still, it was important for me to see the impacts for myself, so that I could better tell the story about what happened and what NOAA and our partners were going to do to make it right.

From the Gulf of Mexico to Southern California

Fish being measured on a table.

After an oil spill, scientists collect lots of data on the potential impacts of the oil and response efforts to fish, birds, and wildlife. (NOAA)

This time, at Refugio State Beach, was different. I was stationed at a command center for those working to assess the environmental impacts of the spill only three days after a pipeline released up to 105,000 gallons of oil, with at least 21,000 gallons reaching the Pacific Ocean north of Santa Barbara.

From the start of this oil spill, I was able to see the inner workings of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment process and how complex and challenging this process can be for the scientists involved. Biologists, armed with notebooks and cameras, were diligently filling out paperwork and going over every painstaking detail of their data. Collecting good data is extremely important at this early stage because it will be used as evidence showing the oil spill’s potential impacts to wildlife and natural areas.

The next day I was asked to follow a team into the field to take photos of them collecting fish samples from one of the oil spill’s “hot zones.” At the stretch of Refugio State Beach where the majority of the oil cleanup activities were taking place, it was easy to be overwhelmed by the scene. There were a huge number of trucks, cars, buses, people in hard hats, reporters, and even an eating area with eight large tables set up under tents.

That day I was part of a team of nine people who would be sampling fish for oil contamination, with representatives from NOAA, the National Park Service, California Department of Fish and Wildlife, and an environmental consulting firm representing Plains All American Pipeline, the company responsible for the leaking pipeline. When we checked in with the on-site safety officer, he told us that we would need to wear Tyvek suits, booties taped around our calves, gloves, and hard hats.

Oil and Fish Don’t Mix

Out on the beach it was hard not to step in oil since it covered most of the cobble rocks lining the beach in a thick band. I watched as the team baited their hooks and cast their lines in the water. The fishing team spread out along the beach, making the job of running buckets of samples between those catching and processing the fish even more challenging.

Once I had finished taking photos, I began shuttling buckets of fish from the edge of the contaminated zone to a picnic table several yards away. There, two women were working hard to process the samples of fish that will later be analyzed for oil contaminants in a lab.

The team caught 18 barred surfperch in total, giving us a robust sample of the local population which might have been affected by the oil spill. It was a successful day of sampling, but at the same time, I found it difficult not to think about how all of that oil was going to be cleaned off of those rocks.

Working at the front line of the oil spill at Refugio State Beach was a unique experience for me, but it also feels a little too close to home. When I was responding to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, I was stationed two hours away from the nearest coast and lived almost 2,000 miles away in California.

I found having an oil spill in your own backyard is much more personal and reminds me of how important it is to plan, train, and prepare for oil spills long before any oil hits the water.

For more information on the response to this oil spill, visit the Refugio Response Joint Information Center website.

Gabrielle Dorr

Gabrielle Dorr.

Gabrielle Dorr is the Outreach Coordinator for the Montrose Settlements Restoration Program as part of NOAA’s Restoration Center. She lives and works in Long Beach, California, where she is always interacting with the local community through outreach events, public meetings, and fishing education programs.


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NOAA Update on the Santa Barbara Oil Spill

Clumps of oil on a sandy beach.

Clumps of oil soon after the pipeline spill at Refugio State Beach. (Nick Schooler, all rights reserved.)

NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration is continuing to respond to the oil spill that resulted from a pipeline break at Refugio State Beach, near Santa Barbara, California, on May 19, 2015.

A reported 500 barrels (21,000 gallons) of crude oil flowed from the shore side of Highway 101 into the Pacific Ocean.

The source was secured shortly after the spill last week. Floating oil from the spill in the ocean has diminished but oil from the natural oil seeps in the area is always present. Natural oil seeps are somewhat like springs that leak oil and gas, instead of water, through fractures in the Earth’s crust.

The Office of Response and Restoration’s Jordan Stout, NOAA Scientific Support Coordinator, has continued to work on-scene throughout the response. According to Stout, any oil substantially east of Santa Barbara at this time is likely not related to the pipeline release.

OR&R has been providing overflight observations of the spill, information on fate and effects of the crude oil, potential environmental impacts both in the water and on the shore, and observation and data management for the Natural Resource Damage Assessment.

Oiled rocks below cliffs on a beach.

Oiled rocks in the area of the oil spill on May 27, 2015. (NOAA)

Cleanup efforts continue. According to the Unified Command, “The responsible party, Plains All-American Pipeline, is working closely with the Coast Guard, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, California Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Santa Barbara Office of Emergency Management.”

The Unified Command also reports that they are collecting and analyzing oil samples to determine whether the source is from natural seeps or spilled oil.

The Unified Command has reported that nearly all recoverable floating oil has been removed, but that skimmers and boom continue to be deployed to capture any remaining sheen. In addition, local experts have suggested that some sheen is associated with the area’s natural seeps.

According to Refugio Response Information, website of the Unified Command’s Joint Information Center, on May 27, 2015:

  • 956 people are working in support of the response.
  • As of May 26, over 10,000 gallons of oily water have been collected from the ocean. This is a mixture of 10 to 30 percent oil mixed with seawater.
  • There are 16 boats working on cleanup operations.
  • Shoreline assessment teams have combed 24.6 miles of shoreline to date, with 21.3 miles of shoreline impacted by oil.

The spill has caused harm to some area wildlife. According to the Unified Command, as of the end of the day May 26, there have been 49 birds collected, primarily brown pelicans, with 33 birds live and 16 dead. Of the 27 marine mammals collected—mostly California sea lions—18 are alive and 9 are dead. Several dolphins, none of which showed visible signs of oil, have been collected during this response and are being investigated. In addition, there have been a large number of invertebrates affected by the oil.

For scientists that are interested in conducting research on the spill site, or researchers that have ongoing projects in the spill area that need access to their field sites, please contact joe.stewart@wildlife.ca.gov.

The Refugio and El Capitan beaches will remain closed to the public until June 4, 2015.

For information on volunteering, call California Spill Watch at 1-800-228-4544 or visit the volunteer page of their website for details.

For further information, see the Joint information Center website: Refugio Response Information.


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Latest NOAA Study Ties Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill to Spike in Gulf Dolphin Deaths

Group of dolphin fins at ocean surface.

A study published in the journal PLOS ONE found that an unusually high number of dead Gulf dolphins had what are normally rare lesions on their lungs and hormone-producing adrenal glands, which are associated with exposure to oil compounds. (NOAA)

What has been causing the alarming increase in dead bottlenose dolphins along the northern Gulf of Mexico since the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the summer of 2010? Independent and government scientists have found even more evidence connecting these deaths to the same signs of illness found in animals exposed to petroleum products, as reported in the peer-reviewed online journal PLOS ONE.

This latest study uncovered that an unusually high number of dead Gulf dolphins had what are normally rare lesions on their lungs and hormone-producing adrenal glands.

The timing, location, and nature of the lesions support that oil compounds from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill caused these lesions and contributed to the high numbers of dolphin deaths within this oil spill’s footprint.

“This is the latest in a series of peer-reviewed scientific studies, conducted over the five years since the spill, looking at possible reasons for the historically high number of dolphin deaths that have occurred within the footprint of the Deepwater Horizon spill,” said Dr. Teri Rowles, one of 22 contributing authors on the paper, and head of NOAA’s Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program, which is charged with determining the causes of unusual mortality events.

“These studies have increasingly pointed to the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons as being the most significant cause of the illnesses and deaths plaguing the Gulf’s dolphin population,” said Dr. Rowles.

A System out of Balance

In this study, one in every three dead dolphins examined across Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama had lesions affecting their adrenal glands, resulting in a serious condition known as “adrenal insufficiency.” The adrenal gland produces hormones—such as cortisol and aldosterone—that regulate metabolism, blood pressure and other bodily functions.

“Animals with adrenal insufficiency are less able to cope with additional stressors in their everyday lives,” said Dr. Stephanie Venn-Watson, the study’s lead author and veterinary epidemiologist at the National Marine Mammal Foundation, “and when those stressors occur, they are more likely to die.”

Earlier studies of Gulf dolphins in areas heavily affected by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill found initial signs of this illness in a 2011 health assessment of dolphins living in Barataria Bay, Louisiana. NOAA scientists Dr. Rowles and Dr. Lori Schwacke spoke about the results of this health assessment in a 2013 interview:

“One rather unusual condition that we noted in many of the Barataria Bay dolphins was that they had very low levels of some hormones (specifically, cortisol) that are produced by the adrenal gland and are important for a normal stress response.

Under a stressful condition, such as being chased by a predator, the adrenal gland produces cortisol, which then triggers a number of physiological responses including an increased heart rate and increased blood sugar. This gives an animal the energy burst that it needs to respond appropriately.

In the Barataria Bay dolphins, cortisol levels were unusually low. The concern is that their adrenal glands were incapable of producing appropriate levels of cortisol, and this could ultimately lead to a number of complications and in some situations even death.”

Swimming with Pneumonia

Ultrasounds showing a normal dolphin lung, compared to lungs with mild, moderate, and severe lung disease.

Ultrasounds showing a normal dolphin lung, compared to lungs with mild, moderate, and severe lung disease. These conditions are consistent with exposure to oil compounds and were found in bottlenose dolphins living in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, one of the most heavily oiled areas during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. (NOAA)

In addition to the lesions on adrenal glands, the scientific team discovered that more than one in five dolphins that died within the Deepwater Horizon oil spill footprint had a primary bacterial pneumonia. Many of these cases were unusual in severity, and caused or contributed to death.

Drs. Rowles and Schwacke previously had observed significant problems in the lungs of dolphins living in Barataria Bay. Again, in 2013, they had noted, “In some of the animals, the lung disease was so severe that we considered it life-threatening for that individual.”

In other mammals, exposure to petroleum-based polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, known as PAHs, through inhalation or aspiration of oil products can lead to injured lungs and altered immune function, both of which can increase an animal’s susceptibility to primary bacterial pneumonia. Dolphins are particularly susceptible to inhalation effects due to their large lungs, deep breaths, and extended breath hold times.

Learn more about NOAA research documenting the impacts from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and find more stories reflecting on the five years since this oil spill.


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Restoration Efforts Hatch Hope for Endangered Seabirds on California’s Channel Islands

This is a post by Jennifer Boyce, biologist with NOAA’s Restoration Center and Montrose Settlements Restoration Program.

Santa Barbara Island is a world apart. Only one square mile in area, it is the smallest island in the Channel Islands National Park, located off the coast of Southern California and lone dwelling place for some unique species of animals and plants.

The island has no land predators, which makes it a haven for seabirds. But human threats to seabirds, including industrial pollution and introduced species, have left their mark even on this haven. Seabird populations began dropping as pollution thinned their eggshells to the breaking point and exotic plants replaced their native nesting habitat.

So imagine the excitement when biologists recently discovered the first ever nests of the rare and threatened Scripps’s Murrelet among two areas restored on the island for their benefit.

A petite, black-and-white seabird, the Scripps’s Murrelet also is threatened by predators introduced to its breeding colonies and by oil spills. While Santa Barbara Island has the largest colony of Scripps’s Murrelet in the United States, the State of California listed this bird as a threatened species [PDF] in 2004 and it currently is a candidate for protection under the federal Endangered Species Act (under a previous name, Xantus’s Murrelet).

Hatching a Better Home

Close up of a murrelet chick's head.

This newly hatched chick was born at Landing Cove, a habitat restoration area on Santa Barbara Island. Its birth gives hope to a threatened species of seabird, the Scripps’s Murrelet. (Andrew Yamagiwa, California Institute of Environmental Studies)

Each spring, murrelets lay one or two eggs in crevices and burrows beneath Santa Barbara Island’s native shrubs. They need the structure and cover provided by native plant communities to protect their nests. Unfortunately, the native shrubs on Santa Barbara Island have been decimated for decades by introduced grazers. Ranchers used to graze sheep on the island, inadvertently bringing non-native plants with them. These and other grazers allowed the non-native plants to proliferate and prevent the few remaining patches of native vegetation from recolonizing the island.

Since 2006, NOAA’s Montrose Settlements Restoration Program has been restoring this habitat for murrelets and other seabirds on Santa Barbara Island, caring for the thousands of native plants they have placed along its dry slopes. Uncovering two nests in two different restoration plots this spring means the project has reached a major milestone.

The older of the two restoration plots where eggs were found, Landing Cove was first planted with native shrubs in December 2008. It can take several years for the shrubs to mature enough to become suitable seabird nesting habitat. One egg was discovered there—on Earth Day, of all days—under a large native shrub planted during restoration efforts. Then, just this week, biologists confirmed that this egg had in fact hatched into a healthy murrelet chick.

The second restored area, Beacon Hill, was planted more recently in 2012, giving biologists both a thrill and surprise to find a second murrelet nest under a native bush planted as part of the project. These nests are a testament to all of the hard work of scientists, restoration experts, and volunteers over the last ten years.

More Than One Way to Break an Egg

Funding to restore these threatened seabirds actually originates in events dating more than half a century earlier.

From the late 1940s to the early 1970s, millions of pounds of the pesticide DDT and the industrial chemicals known as PCBs were discharged into ocean waters off the southern California coast. Most of the DDT originated from the Montrose Chemical Corporation manufacturing plant located in Torrance, California.

DDT released into the ocean near California’s Palos Verdes shelf spread through the food chain, eventually reaching seabirds and causing thinning in their eggs laid on the Channel Islands. The eggshells became so thin that when the adults would sit on the eggs to warm them they would break.

In 2001, following a lengthy period of litigation, NOAA and other federal and state agencies reached a settlement with the responsible parties, establishing the Montrose Settlements Restoration Program. The program is working to restore populations of these rare seabirds and their habitat in the Channel Islands.

Restoration Efforts Taking Flight

Adult murrelet with a chick.

Scripps’s Murrelets only breed on islands off California and Mexico, and their limited time on land creates a short window of opportunity for restoration efforts. (Gaby Keeler, California Institute of Environmental Studies)

A member of the auk family (which includes Puffins), Scripps’s Murrelets take the term “seabird” to new limits. Murrelets spend almost their entire lives at sea, only coming to land to lay their eggs and hatch their young. Their chicks live up to being a seabird as well, spending only two days on the island before tumbling into the ocean to join their parents—leaving before they can even fly.

These small birds only breed on islands off California and Mexico, and their limited time on land creates a short window of opportunity for restoration efforts.

One of the goals of the Santa Barbara Island restoration project is to remove the non-native plants at selected areas identified as high quality nesting habitat. Biologists are restoring these areas by then planting native species with the help of lots of volunteers.

This work is by no means easy. To date, over 30,000 plants have been put into the ground. All of the native plants in the project are grown from seed on the island, and growing a mature plant takes six to eight months. One of the challenges to growing these plants is that Santa Barbara is a desert island with no natural water source. All the water needed for raising the native plants must be transported by a National Park Service boat, and moved onto the island by crane in large 400 gallon tanks.

A permanent nursery, which employs water-saving techniques, was constructed on the island to reduce the amount of water that needs to be sent to the island. Recently a drip irrigation system also has been installed at the restoration sites and is greatly improving plant survivorship while reducing water needs.

The two nests found this spring are great signs that the restoration efforts are successful and helping to restore this endangered seabird and others to this unique island. We look forward to finding many more nests in the future. In the meantime, check out this video detailing our efforts to restore seabird habitat on Santa Barbara Island:

Jennifer BoyceJennifer Boyce works for the NOAA Restoration Center, based in Long Beach, California. Jennifer serves as the NOAA trustee on several oil spill restoration Trustee Councils throughout California and is the Program Manager for the Montrose Settlements Restoration Program.


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On the Chesapeake Bay, Turning Artillery Sites and Landfills into Places for Wildlife

Excavator removes metal debris from the shore of a coastal landfill.

Used from 1972 to 1974, this landfill at Naval Support Facility Indian Head’s site 36 saw more than 57,000 pounds of metal and other materials hauled away as part of its cleanup and restoration. (U.S. Navy)

Roughly 25 miles downstream of Washington, DC, on the Potomac River is a military base known as Naval Support Facility Indian Head. Established in 1890, it is the U.S. Navy’s oldest continuously running ordnance station (ordnance includes artillery and ammunition). In the course of its history, this sprawling 2,500 acre naval installation has served as a research facility, a testing site for artillery, and a manufacturing site for some of the explosive chemical powders used in weapons.

However, as is the case for many other military facilities scattered along the shores of Chesapeake Bay, the land and waters of the Indian Head base became so polluted by the range of military activities—at one point, the Navy used it to test large naval guns by firing projectiles into the Potomac River—that it was designated a Superfund site and slated for cleanup under CERCLA.

Aerial view of Naval Support Facility Indian Head surrounded by water.

Like many other military facilities along the Chesapeake Bay, the land and waters of the Indian Head base became so polluted by the range of military activities that it was designated a Superfund site and slated for cleanup. (U.S. Navy)

But tackling environmental cleanup and restoration in a place with such a long history of explosives makes for unusual challenges.

For example, when the cleanup team needed to take soil or water samples, they often had to call in ordnance clearance specialists to help deal with the dangerous chemicals, guns, rockets, missiles, ordnance, and explosives potentially littering the area.

Juxtaposed against this scene at the base is Mattawoman Creek, a beautiful freshwater tidal creek with abundant wetlands and wildlife adjacent to the military site. Migratory fish such as yellow perch, herring, and shad follow the creek as they travel further inland to reproduce. In addition, many fish use the wetlands as a nursery and source of food. Large, hungry birds such as bald eagles, herons, and egrets flock to the area, as well as recreational fishers eager to cast their lines to the plentiful fish.

Fortunately, a detailed investigation indicated that this natural area has not suffered widespread impacts from pollution at the nearby base. Instead, the investigation directed the base’s cleanup strategy to focus on key sections serving as major pollution sources.

Laying Waste

The Caffee Road Landfill at the base’s Site 11 was such a mix of soil, waste, and debris that it actually extended the shoreline up to 150 feet into Mattawoman Creek. In addition to serving as a landfill for Indian Head, the military used the site to burn waste, and munitions and explosives potentially lay buried in pockets along the shoreline.

Getting this landfill—an ongoing source of pollution—under control needed to accomplish three goals: block contact with the contaminated soil, prevent shoreline erosion, and avoid exposing potential ordnance.

The design for remediating this site included placing a protective soil cover over the landfill and stabilizing the shoreline. Historically, shoreline stabilization has been achieved by positioning large rocks and riprap on the edge of the water, which “hardens” the shoreline and would move the wave energy from the protected area to adjacent areas.

Instead, NOAA and the trustee agencies responsible for the area’s natural resources proposed what is called a “living shoreline.” These hybrid shorelines are constructed habitats designed to mimic the functions of natural shoreline habitats and which incorporate both natural habitat and built infrastructure. They aim to provide the same benefits as nature, such as shoreline stabilization, improved water quality, and wildlife habitat. The project was rounded out by planting marsh shrubs and trees along the shoreline and by seeding and mulching the soil cover on top of the landfill.

All the while during these construction operations, the cleanup team had a trained professional clearing the munitions and explosives to provide safe working conditions as they transformed this dump into a safe place for fish, birds, and wildlife.

The close partnership among several federal and state agencies, including the Navy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Maryland Department of the Environment, and the trustees, was instrumental in successfully and efficiently converting this former landfill into vibrant habitat, resulting in savings of more than $700,000.

Recycling for Wildlife

A similar transformation has occurred at a landfill on the base’s Site 36. This landfill, most likely originally part of Chickamuxen Creek and a nearby wetland, was used from 1972 to 1974 and has been inactive since that time. The fill material dumped into the creek was believed to contain metal casings from mines, bombs, and torpedoes—not exactly normal working conditions.

Cleanup focused on removing scrap metal and potential munitions items from the surface of the landfill and the shoreline. The multi-agency team hauled away more than 57,000 pounds of metal and other materials from the site, with much of it recycled rather than left under the existing soil cover. By taking a common-sense approach to removing this debris, the project managed risk and minimized environmental impacts by maintaining natural habitats, including forests and wetlands, whenever possible, while also ensuring the landfill’s soil cover would control pollution.

While there is still work to be done, progress abounds elsewhere on the naval facility. For example, the multi-agency cleanup team removed creek sediments contaminated with mercury and surrounding floodplain soils to protect and enhance restoration of habitat along a tributary to Mattawoman Creek. The tributary has been blocked off from the main channel to prevent mercury from getting to Mattawoman Creek, but with the mercury gone, there is now potential for opening up the tributary and reconnecting it with the creek.

Naval Support Facility Indian Head occupies a unique place in military history, and thanks to efficient collaboration among federal and state agencies working to clean it up, this locale again provides valuable and healthy habitat for fish, birds, and wildlife along the Chesapeake Bay.


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NOAA Launches New Data Management Tool for Public Access to Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Data

Two people launch a water column sampling device off the side of a ship.

Launching a device to take measurements in the water column during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. NOAA built the online tool DIVER to organize and provide access to these scientific data and the many others collected in the wake of the spill. (NOAA)

A flexible new data management tool—known as DIVER and developed by NOAA to support the Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) for the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill—is now available for public use. DIVER stands for “Data Integration, Visualization, Exploration and Reporting,” and it can be accessed at https://dwhdiver.orr.noaa.gov.

DIVER was developed as a digital data warehouse during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill response effort and related damage assessment process, which has required collecting and organizing massive amounts of scientific data on the environmental impacts of the spill.

The tool serves as a centralized data repository that integrates diverse environmental data sets collected from across the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem. It allows scientists from different organizations and laboratories located across the country to upload field data, analyses, photographs, and other key information related to their studies in a standardized format. DIVER thus brings together all of that validated information into a single, web-based tool.

In addition, DIVER provides unprecedented flexibility for filtering and downloading validated data collected as part of the ongoing damage assessment efforts for the Gulf of Mexico. The custom query and mapping interface of the tool, “DIVER Explorer,” provides both a data filter and review tools, which allow users to refine how they look for data and explore large data sets online. Query results are presented in an interactive dashboard, with a map, charts, table of results, metadata (data about the data), and sophisticated options for exporting the data.

View of DIVER Explorer map and query results for environmental impact data in the Gulf of Mexico.

A view of DIVER Explorer query results shown in an interactive dashboard. (NOAA)

In addition to the DIVER Explorer query tools, this website presents a detailed explanation of our data management approach, an explanation of field definitions and codes used in the data warehouse, and a robust help section.

Currently, DIVER provides access to nearly 4 million validated results of analytical chemistry from over 50,000 samples of water, tissue, oil, and sediment collected by federal, state, academic, and nongovernmental organizations to support the Deepwater Horizon damage assessment. As additional data sets become publicly available they will be accessible through the DIVER Explorer tool.

Read the announcement of this tool’s public launch from the NOAA website.

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