NOAA's Response and Restoration Blog

An inside look at the science of cleaning up and fixing the mess of marine pollution


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Using Dogs to Find Oil During Spill Response

Man and woman with black dog. IMage credit: NOAA.

Catherine Berg, Pepper, and Gary Shigenaka. Image credit: NOAA.

NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration’s Emergency Response Division returned to Prince William Sound to use some of the old buried oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill to improve how we can find oil on the shoreline in the future.

This time, the key player was an enthusiastic black Labrador retriever named Pepper. This project is to validate and better understand the capabilities of trained oil detection canines to locate and delineate subsurface stranded oil. The results of the study have a high probability of immediate, short-term applications and long-term real benefits in the design and implementation of shoreline cleanup and assessment technique surveys for stranded oil.

Usually, teams of people trained in the shoreline assessment techniques, called SCAT, comb for oil buried along shorelines and other areas affected by oil spills. The technique has been an integral part of oil spill response since the Exxon Valdez spill in 1989.  It is a systematic approach to describing the “where” and “how much” for spilled oil, and directs cleanup activities during moderate and larger spill incidents.

The process is labor-intensive and time-consuming, and requires trained personnel to survey areas possibly impacted by an oil spill. In certain habitats—like gravel or sand beaches—oil either penetrates deeply below the surface or becomes buried by material deposited on top, making oil assessment even more difficult. In these cases, SCAT teams must dig pits to determine the existence and extent of buried oil that would require excavation and other more complicated cleanup approaches.

The limitations of human-centric SCAT surveys led one of the originators of the first SCAT programs during Exxon Valdez, Ed Owens of Owens Coastal Consultants, to begin discussions with Paul Bunker’s K2 Solutions to determine if the high sensitivity, accuracy and precision of canine noses could be adapted and applied to the task of oil spill shoreline assessment.

Three people on rocky shore with black dog. Image credit: NOAA>

Paul Bunker and Haiden Montgomery assessing the odor of residual Exxon Valdez oil, while Pepper closely supervises the collection of an oil sample by Scott Pegau of the Oil Spill Recovery Institute. Image credit: NOAA.

This is what led Ed, Paul, Pepper the black lab, her handler Haiden Montgomery, and a host of interested observers from NOAA, the Coast Guard, Exxon-Mobil, Chevron, Polaris Environmental, and the Oil Spill Recovery Institute to make the trip to Prince William Sound, the Alaskan region impacted by Exxon Valdez. The Oil Spill Recovery Institute sponsored the project.

Dog teams are already being productively employed for oil assessment in actual spills (Pepper will be traveling to Canada to join her canine colleagues for a river spill assessment).

Scientists from the Office of Response and Restoration observed the trials, assisted in the verification of oil presence, and provided feedback on the use of oil detection dogs in real-time spill situations.

Canine detection of buried oil holds real promise for improving the effectiveness and efficiency of oil spill assessment surveys. The methodology will continue to be refined and improved as it is used in real oil spill situations, and as we increase our understanding of how and what the dogs are actually detecting.

 

Gary Shigenaka and Catherine Berg with the Office of Response and Restoration contributed to this article.


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Podcast: Restoration of Industrial Waste Sites (Episode 5)

The Raritan River as it runs through a wooded area.

The American Cyanamid Superfund Site affected the Raritan River in northern New Jersey. Image credit: U.S. Geological Survey

An unfortunate by product of some industrial activities is the release of hazardous chemicals and heavy metals into the environment. NOAA Ocean Podcast talked with Reyhan Meharn, NOAA Regional Resource Coordinator with the Assessment and Restoration Division, about moving towards restoration at hazardous industrial waste sites.

Listen to the podcast:

http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/podcast/may17/nop05-restoration.html

Read the National Ocean Service podcast transcript (May 2017, 13;49)

 


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NOAA Adding Polar Projections to Arctic ERMA Mapping Tool

Two Steller sea lions. Image credit: NOAA.

Mapping where Steller sea lions gather out of the water is one of the layers that can be added to a map in Arctic ERMA. Image credit: NOAA

The Arctic is one of the most remote regions on the planet but that may change as the sea ice continues to shrink, allowing for more ships, tourism, fishing, and possible oil exploration in the region. More activity also brings the possibility of oil spills and other environmental disasters.

NOAA’s Arctic online environmental mapping tool, called Arctic ERMA, now has polar projection base maps. The new projection maps give a less distorted view than the standard Mercator flat-map perspective. On a flat map, distances near the pole look greater than they really are.

“The polar view/projection takes the distortion into account, and thus the measurement and view are more accurate,” according to Amy Merten, chief of the Spatial Data Branch of the Office of Response and Restoration and chair of the Arctic Council’s working group on emergency prevention, preparedness, and response.

For emergency responders trying to estimate how far an oil spill may be from landfall, the new polar projections are important for preparing response plans. Additionally, the polar projections improve the ability to look at all of the Arctic countries at once, helping with international perspectives and communications, Merten added.

Arctic ERMA’s polar projections make it easier to look at all of the countries and their respective data in a more realistic view, and in the same frame.  For example, in a Mercator map, you can move to Norway on the map but then you cannot see Barrow, Alaska and Vardo, Norway at the same time. With the new polar projections, an emergency responder can see equipment caches in both areas and compare them, as well as plan for moving equipment from one location to another with better accuracy and understanding.

There are more than 500 data layers that can be mapped in Arctic ERMA, including:

Arctic ERMA officially launched in 2009 and is one of eight regional ERMA online mapping tools. The mapping tools integrate both static and real-time data, such as ship locations, weather, and ocean currents, in a centralized, interactive map for environmental disaster response managers. NOAA and the University of New Hampshire developed ERMA with the U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Department of Interior. Artic ERMA’s polar projection maps were funded by the Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement.

Arctic polar projection mao. Image credit: NOAA.

Polar projection map in Arctic ERMA. The ability to choose several polar projections will improve data and mapping accuracy and will increase communications and data sharing with other Arctic nations. Image credit: NOAA


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Oil Spill Incident Responses for April 2017

Close up of skimming device on side of a boat with oil and boom. Image credit: U.S. coast Guard

The Emergency Response Division provides scientific expertise and services to the U.S. Coast Guard, including what equipment may be most efficient for containing spilled oil. Skimmers come in various designs but all basically work by removing the oil layer from the surface of the water. Image credit: U.S. Coast Guard

Oil spills come in all sizes from a pleasure boat’s small leak, to an oil platform explosion that results in environmental devastation, like the 2010 Deepwater Horizon incident.

Every month our Emergency Response Division provides scientific expertise and services to the U.S. Coast Guard on everything from running oil spill trajectories to where the spill may spread, to possible effects on wildlife and fisheries, and estimates on how long the oil may stay in the environment. Our Incident News website has information on oil spills and other incidents where we provided scientific support.

Here are this month’s responses:

Sunken Pleasure Craft, Pass a Loutre

Tug Powhatan

M/V Todd Brown

Mystery Sheen, NESDIS Report

BP Exploration Well #3, Prudhoe Bay, AK

U.S. Steel Hexavalent Chrome Release

F/V Bendora Aground

Vengeance crane barge sinking

Breton Sound Natural Gas Well Head 46D

UTV Michael Nadicksbernd

ATB Meredith Reinauer, Catskill, NY

MV Dawn

Anna Platform Pipeline Leak