NOAA's Response and Restoration Blog

An inside look at the science of cleaning up and fixing the mess of marine pollution

Kelp Forest Restoration Project Begins off Southern California Coast

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This is a post by Gabrielle Dorr, NOAA/Montrose Settlements Restoration Program Outreach Coordinator.

A volunteer diver removes urchins from an urchin barren to encourage the settlement of kelp larvae.

A volunteer diver removes urchins from an urchin barren to encourage the settlement of kelp larvae.

After 15 years of scientific monitoring, research, and planning, the Santa Monica Bay Restoration Foundation (SMBRF), with funding and technical assistance from NOAA’s Montrose Settlements Restoration Program (MSRP), begins a large-scale kelp forest restoration project [PDF] off the coast of California’s Palos Verdes peninsula this July. SMBRF will bring kelp forests back to life in an area that has experienced a 75% loss of kelp canopy.

Nearly 100 acres of reef habitat along the Palos Verdes coast is covered by “urchin barrens,” where the densities of urchins are extremely high and kelp plants are non-existent. Sea urchins are spiny marine invertebrates that live on rocky reef substrates and feed mostly on algae. When sea urchin populations are kept stable, they are an important part of a healthy kelp forest ecosystem.

On the other hand, in an “urchin barren,” urchin densities get very high because predators rarely feed on urchins, preferring the greater cover and higher productivity of healthy kelp forests. The urchins in barrens are also in a constant state of starvation, continually expanding the barren area by eating every newly settled kelp plant before the kelp has a chance to grow. These urchins are of no value to fishermen and urchin predators because they are undernourished, small, and often diseased.

See what an urchin barren looks like:

Kelp forests provide critical habitat for many fish species.

Kelp forests provide critical habitat for many fish species. (NOAA/David Witting)

To bring back the kelp forests, volunteer divers, commercial urchin divers, researchers, and local nonprofit groups will assist SMBRF with removing urchins from the “urchin barrens” and allow for natural settlement of kelp plants. Divers’ removal of the urchins will allow for kelp plants to grow and mature, which can happen quickly since the plants often grow up to two feet per day.

Within a year, SMBRF expects that many of the characteristics of a mature kelp forest will return, including providing suitable fish habitat for important commercial and recreational fish species. The mature kelp forest will support greater numbers of urchin predators, such as birds, fish, crabs, lobsters, octopuses, sea stars, and sea otters, which will help to maintain more sustainable levels of urchin populations in the future.

NOAA’s Montrose Settlements Restoration Program is providing funding for this project as part of its plan to restore fish habitat in southern California. MSRP was developed in 2001 following a case settlement against polluters that released the toxic agricultural and industrial chemicals DDTs and PCBs into the southern California marine environment. MSRP has allocated settlement funds to restore natural resources that were harmed by these chemicals, including impacts to fish habitat due to their presence in ocean sediments.

Learn more about the kelp forest restoration project [PDF], including details about how and where it will happen.

Gabrielle Dorr

Gabrielle Dorr.

Gabrielle Dorr is the Outreach Coordinator for the Montrose Settlements Restoration Program as part of NOAA’s Restoration Center. She lives and works in Long Beach, California, where she is always interacting with the local community through outreach events, public meetings, and fishing education programs.

Author: Office of Response and Restoration

The National Ocean Service's Office of Response and Restoration (OR&R) provides scientific solutions for marine pollution. A part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), OR&R is a center of expertise in preparing for, evaluating, and responding to threats to coastal environments. These threats could be oil and chemical spills, releases from hazardous waste sites, or marine debris.

4 thoughts on “Kelp Forest Restoration Project Begins off Southern California Coast

  1. We would be happy to send a few thousand sea otters to help eradicate urchins. They have grown exponential in pop. here in southern southeast Alaska leaving otter barrens over wide areas with drastic effects on our marine ecosystems. Ups? Usps? Chapter jet?

    • Thanks for the comment, Scott. As you are witnessing, whenever a single species gets out of balance, it can affect the entire ecosystem. The lack of sea urchin predators, including otters, is definitely having an effect on our kelp forests in southern California.

      More importantly … the U.S. Postal Service is our preferred method of shipping! Good luck keeping those sea otters in check.
      –Gabrielle

      • Hello-, How can we find information on volunteering for this program? Is there a contact # or e-mail?

      • Hi Aaron,

        Thanks for your question. Santa Monica Bay Restoration Foundation is coordinating the program. I have emailed you the contact information for the people leading the program and am happy to share it with others who are interested as well.

        Cheers,
        Ashley
        NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration

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